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Lecture Notes & Textbook Notes

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Christopher Watts

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Anthropology Term 1 Study Guide Lehman 10-12-07 1:54 AM
LEHMAN LECTURE#1
Evolutionary Anthropology
Application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of the
morphology, ecology and behaviour of human and non-human
primates
Primatology
Scientific study of non-human primates
o Primate anatomy, field studies of wild animals, primate
psychology, etc.
Paleoanthropology
Multi-disciplinary study of biological evolution of humans and non-
human primates and advent of and changes in human cultural
activities
Evolutionary history of behaviour in human and non-human
primates
Human Variation
Spatial and temporal variations in human features
o i.e. geographic and climatic variations in body size, skin
colour, and eye colour
Medical Anthropology
The social, environmental, and biological factors influence health
and illness of individuals at the community, regional, national, and
global levels
Forensic Anthropology
Focuses only on skeletal remains of humans
o Forensic anthropologists seek to determine the age, sex,
stature, ancestry, and any trauma or disease of the deceased
Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus
Taxonomic system and binomial nomenclature
o First comprehensive classification system for living things
o Each living thing named separate species
! On basis of physical resemblances, species grouped into
broader categories called genera (sing. Genus)
Binomial nomenclature
www.notesolution.com
o First letter of genus capitalized: Homo
o Species designation lower case: sapiens
George-Louis Leclerc (Comte de Buffon)
36-volume Histoire Naturelle: described everything known about
natural history
o natural history: the study of animals, plants, and minerals
founded biogeography
o the study of the geographic distribution of organisms
! despite similar environments, different regions have
distinct plants and animals
Jean-Baptist Lamarck
Suggested that individuals lose useless characteristics and develop
useful ones which are passed down to offspring (inheritance of
acquired characteristics)
Among the first to formulate method for origination of new species
through use or disuse of certain characters of an organism
Charles Darwin
Observed incredible variety of living and fossilized creatures on
scientific expedition
Concluded that NO fixity of species and notion on short, thus
catastrophism must be incorrect
Variation Important in Evolution
Physical variety in any population of organisms
If variety provides advantage to certain individuals, then they may
produce more offspring
o Offspring inherit beneficial variation, so they produce more
offspring; variation norm of population (population may
change, perhaps into a completely new and different species)
How Adaptive Change Occurs
Came from Malthus Essay: many more organisms are born than an
possible survive
Darwin: individuals in a species adapt to environment in long-term
adaptations means evolutionary shift in entire population in
response to environmental change
www.notesolution.com
Darwins Theory on Natural Selection
All extant and extinct species share a common ancestry
Species evolve by natural selection
o A process in nature resulting in survival and perpetuation of
only those forms of life having certain favourable
characteristics that enable them to adapt best to their
environment
Alfred Russell Wallace
Writes to Darwin from Malaysia, describing certain aspects theory of
natural selection that Darwin had been researching for 20 years
His short sketch is far from the massive body of evidence Darwin
had collected, but its ideas were similar
3 Postulates of Darwanian Evolution
1. Struggle for existence: ability of population to expand is infinite,
but environment is always finite
2. Variation in fitness: organisms vary, some individuals possess
traits enabling them to survive and reproduce more successfully
than others in same environment
3. Inheritance of variation: advantageous traits inherited by
offspring will become more common in succeeding variations. Traits
that confer advantages in survival and reproduction retained in
population; disadvantageous traits disappear
Darwins Other Contributions
Avoided implications of general process or directionality
Later works apply evolution to humans and discuss other aspects of
trait variation
Sexual selection: certain evolutionary traits can be explained by
intraspecific (within species) competition
“Survival of the Fittest”
Herbert Spencer
Proclaimed wrongly that a struggle for existence in human society
leads to its evolution
Darwanian Evolution and Inheritances
Weakness: no explanation on how characteristics are inherited
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Anthropology Term 1 Study Guide Lehman 10-12-07 1:54 AM LEHMAN LECTURE#1 Evolutionary Anthropology Application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of the morphology, ecology and behaviour of human and non-human primates Primatology Scientific study of non-human primates o Primate anatomy, field studies of wild animals, primate psychology, etc. Paleoanthropology Multi-disciplinary study of biological evolution of humans and non- human primates and advent of and changes in human cultural activities Evolutionary history of behaviour in human and non-human primates Human Variation Spatial and temporal variations in human features o i.e. geographic and climatic variations in body size, skin colour, and eye colour Medical Anthropology The social, environmental, and biological factors influence health and illness of individuals at the community, regional, national, and global levels Forensic Anthropology Focuses only on skeletal remains of humans o Forensic anthropologists seek to determine the age, sex, stature, ancestry, and any trauma or disease of the deceased Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus Taxonomic system and binomial nomenclature o First comprehensive classification system for living things o Each living thing named separate species On basis of physical resemblances, species grouped into broader categories called genera (sing. Genus) Binomial nomenclature www.notesolution.com o First letter of genus capitalized: Homo o Species designation lower case: sapiens George-Louis Leclerc (Comte de Buffon) 36-volume Histoire Naturelle: described everything known about natural history o natural history: the study of animals, plants, and minerals founded biogeography o the study of the geographic distribution of organisms despite similar environments, different regions have distinct plants and animals Jean-Baptist Lamarck Suggested that individuals lose useless characteristics and develop useful ones which are passed down to offspring (inheritance of acquired characteristics) Among the first to formulate method for origination of new species through use or disuse of certain characters of an organism Charles Darwin Observed incredible variety of living and fossilized creatures on scientific expedition Concluded that NO fixity of species and notion on short, thus catastrophism must be incorrect Variation Important in Evolution Physical variety in any population of organisms If variety provides advantage to certain individuals, then they may produce more offspring o Offspring inherit beneficial variation, so they produce more offspring; variation norm of population (population may change, perhaps into a completely new and different species) How Adaptive Change Occurs Came from Malthus Essay: many more organisms are born than an possible survive Darwin: individuals in a species adapt to environment in long-term adaptations means evolutionary shift in entire population in response to environmental change www.notesolution.com Darwins Theory on Natural Selection All extant and extinct species share a common ancestry Species evolve by natural selection o A process in nature resulting in survival and perpetuation of only those forms of life having certain favourable characteristics that enable them to adapt best to their environment Alfred Russell Wallace Writes to Darwin from Malaysia, describing certain aspects theory of natural selection that Darwin had been researching for 20 years His short sketch is far from the massive body of evidence Darwin had collected, but its ideas were similar 3 Postulates of Darwanian Evolution 1. Struggle for existence: ability of population to expand is infinite, but environment is always finite 2. Variation in fitness: organisms vary, some individuals possess traits enabling them to survive and reproduce more successfully than others in same environment 3. Inheritance of variation: advantageous traits inherited by offspring will become more common in succeeding variations. Traits that confer advantages in survival and reproduction retained in population; disadvantageous traits disappear Darwins Other Contributions Avoided implications of general process or directionality Later works apply evolution to humans and discuss other aspects of trait variation Sexual selection: certain evolutionary traits can be explained by intraspecific (within species) competition Survival of the Fittest Herbert Spencer Proclaimed wrongly that a struggle for existence in human society leads to its evolution Darwanian Evolution and Inheritances Weakness: no explanation on how characteristics are inherited www.notesolution.com Darwin believed that in each individual, inheritance from both parents completely blended Initially favoured Lamarckian view that environment itself somehow caused favourable variants to appear (dropped this idea later) o Lamarckian blending doesnt work Gregor Mendel Experimented with pea plans (Pisum sativum) Methods: o 1. Inbred: true-breeding lines o 2. Hybrids: quantify traits o 3. Observable traits: flower colour, seed colour, etc. o 4. Plants small: easy to grow in large numbers; short generation time for several crosses per growing season o 5. Self-fertilizing, but can do cross fertilizations Conclusions o Each individual plant carry 2 copies of factor determines trait o If plants breed true then identical factors; otherwise, one will make other trait LEHMAN LECTURE#2 Microevolution (evolutionary concepts within population) Genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution, population genetics, natural selection, and adaptation Macroevolution (large-scale changes at or above species level, extending over a geological era, and resulting in the formation of new taxanomic groups) Speciation, how evolution works on a grand scale, and modern synthesis o Evolutionary processes of a new species The Modern Synthesis of Evolution (encompasses ideas from genetics, systematics, and natural history and paleoanthropology www.notesolution.com
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