Jean-Baptiste Lamark: French, soldier and academic. Reformulation and
specification on the idea of how organisms change (that people lose
characteristics they don`t use and develop useful characteristics, which they
pass to their offspring). And that environmental changes could alter
Georges Cuvier: French naturalist. Studied structural similarities and
differences between organisms. Helped establish comparative anatomy and
palaeontology (contrasting tissues of living and extinct orgasims).
Championed the idea of catastophism. Major contribution was his assertion
that species go extinct.
James Hutton: Scottish naturalist and geologist. Contributing to founding
geology as a science. Proposed the idea of upheaval and erosion of
sedimentary rock- form components of uniformitarianism, a geological
principle that says the Earth was formed and has evolved through the same
natural geological processes operating today.
Charles Lyell: Scottish geologist. Contributed to geology, stratigraphy (rock
layers), and glaciology. Main Contribution was his influence on young
European natural historian Charles Darwin.
•Darwin and Natural Selection:
English geologist and naturalist. Became a naturalist aboard the HMS
Beagle, for a 2 year sail of South America. Research was to determine how
Idea of natural selection : nature selects favourable variations or traits of
individuals in a species that will allow them to better compete in nature-
because they’re more likely to survive than others. Published On the Origins
Gregor Mendel, monk in the Czech Republic.
Experimented with the common pea plant, and the physical variations of it.
Selectively bred pure phenotypic plants, then crossbred them to see the traits
of their offspring.
‘Father of Genetics’.