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Very THOROUGH notes on exact text pages indicated by Danesi for his exam

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Marcel Danesi

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Jan-Mar, 2010
Anthropology- Linguistics Notes
Danesis section
Chapter 1-
2.1- Interference
Interference phenomena -falls generally under contact linguistics.
The study of interference has shown that linguistic borrowing, calquing, and other
language mixing phenomena, have been significant factors in the change and generation
of new forms of language.
2.2. Communication and miscommunication and the global village:
-Verbal communication rarely results in the direct transmission of information from one
speaker to the next without affecting the content and the intent in the information
-With IC, a message can be interpreted correctly only if the sender and receiver possess
the same kind of structural and conceptual knowledge built into the language used to
transmit the message
Verbal Programing- Construction of messages
-Although the objective of global linguistics is to study the role of verbal programming
involved in intercultural communication, nonverbal dimensions such as body language
and visual communication, must also be taken into account.
-The two most important dimensions of verbal programming are: Pragmatic
Dimension, and Logico-semantic dimension
Pragmatic Dimension- Understanding that language is used as a way of interacting in a
variety of social settings (Interaction Fields).
-Language used to: inform, question, make promises and requests, to complain, to
apologize, to greet, and another of other social actions.
-The successful use of language in these various situations depends on the
participants common understanding of the social situation, and of the inferences they
draw form a variety of subtle cues.
Logico-semantic- How people use languages to: represent the world conceptually,
combine simple concepts into complex ideas, and use simple and complex concepts to
reason about the world in vital inference schemes.
www.notesolution.com
Metaphor and Argumentation- Two phenomena relating to the semantic and pragmatic
dimensions of global linguistics.
Metaphors- Semantic dimension relies on metaphorical strategies to conceptualize the
world, particularly when making sense of complex and abstract conceptual ideas. It is
done so metaphorically using simple references to our basic experiences of the physical
world.
Ex: Complex social domain of economics and finance- Metaphor used Money is
liquid. These are simple words, but through applying what they associate with physically,
they can be used to express complex theory and meaning.
-Basic understanding of water being fluid, drying up, freezing.
-“Central banks inject more cash into financial system
-“Iceland missed signs of Liquidity Freeze.
Argumentative Strategies- Attempts to persuade some one through providing reasoning-
Arguments are modes of gaining: warranted assent, reasoned adherence, voluntary and
informed acceptance.
Arguments = Central route of persuasion- affects deepest and most stable changes in
attitudes.
Peripheral route of persuasion- Fickle and superficial changes in attitudes based only on
emotions, authority, or association of ideas.
-Healthy intercultural argumentation is necessary to IC, to give solid grounding and
cooperation of people form different cultures.
Problems with Intercultural Argumentation- Studies have shown that participants
judging intercultural arguments say that often the arguments being presented are illogical,
irrelevant, or muddled in thinking. Presents the question: Do people from other cultures
have different logic?
Three sources of difficulty in IC argumentation:
-Speaker is unable to conceive their message precisely in conceptual terms- “I did
not know what to say”
-Speaker can conceptualize the message but cannot express it.I dont know how
to say it
-Speaker can conceptualize the problem, and knows how to express it, but will not
do so for cultural reasons (inappropriate, impolite)- “One cannot say that
Non-communication- When no meaning comes across to the hearer
Miscommunication- When an unintended message is communicated to the hearer
Two types of communication failure concerning pragmatic dimension:
www.notesolution.com
1)Pragma-linguistic Failure- When people misunderstand the pragmatic force of a
linguistic expression (ie: the social context).
E.g. Would you like an orange juice? Misunderstood as a hypothetical question of
personal taste rather than an offer of an actual item.
2)Socio-Pragmatic Failure- Occurs when people communicate in a way that the other
culture considers inappropriate or offensive in particular social setting.
E.g. In Korean culture it is polite to as a new acquaintances detailed questions about
work, family and children, where in French culture it would be considered embarrassingly
personal and inappropriate.
3- Language
Language- Greek definition: Logos-The power of reason residing in the human soul that
transformed humans from insentient brutes into sapiens, rational creatures.
-Allows people to converse in a logical, structural fashion that makes sense to
speakers of that language. Categories of thought mirror categories of language, and when
the speaker uses these categories of language, it is assumed that the listener has access to
these same categories. Miss communication can occur when both speakers do not share
these categories.
Language statistics:
-7000 languages spoken in the world (excluding dialects)
-200 languages spoken by 1 million or more people
-23 languages spoken by 50 million or more
-Of 7000 current languages, over half are expected to disappear in the next 100 years.
-Multilingualism is the norm, monolingualism is an exception
Diglossia- The specialization of two languages for specific communication and social
purposes.
Multiglossia- When two or more languages are used for specialized purposes.
Patterns of Triglossia:
1)Several local/ethnic common languages used for informal oral communication
within the family/ethnic group/community
2)Regional or national Koine used for daily business, communication within other
towns or regions, elementary education, mass media
3)An international language, used for higher education, official documents,
technology, international communication.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Jan-Mar, 2010 Anthropology- Linguistics Notes Danesis section Chapter 1- 2.1- Interference Interference phenomena -falls generally under contact linguistics. The study of interference has shown that linguistic borrowing, calquing, and other language mixing phenomena, have been significant factors in the change and generation of new forms of language. 2.2. Communication and miscommunication and the global village: -Verbal communication rarely results in the direct transmission of information from one speaker to the next without affecting the content and the intent in the information -With IC, a message can be interpreted correctly only if the sender and receiver possess the same kind of structural and conceptual knowledge built into the language used to transmit the message Verbal Programing- Construction of messages -Although the objective of global linguistics is to study the role of verbal programming involved in intercultural communication, nonverbal dimensions such as body language and visual communication, must also be taken into account. -The two most important dimensions of verbal programming are: Pragmatic Dimension, and Logico-semantic dimension Pragmatic Dimension- Understanding that language is used as a way of interacting in a variety of social settings (Interaction Fields). -Language used to: inform, question, make promises and requests, to complain, to apologize, to greet, and another of other social actions. -The successful use of language in these various situations depends on the participants common understanding of the social situation, and of the inferences they draw form a variety of subtle cues. Logico-semantic- How people use languages to: represent the world conceptually, combine simple concepts into complex ideas, and use simple and complex concepts to reason about the world in vital inference schemes. www.notesolution.comMetaphor and Argumentation- Two phenomena relating to the semantic and pragmatic dimensions of global linguistics. Metaphors- Semantic dimension relies on metaphorical strategies to conceptualize the world, particularly when making sense of complex and abstract conceptual ideas. It is done so metaphorically using simple references to our basic experiences of the physical world. Ex: Complex social domain of economics and finance- Metaphor used Money is liquid. These are simple words, but through applying what they associate with physically, they can be used to express complex theory and meaning. -Basic understanding of water being fluid, drying up, freezing. -Central banks inject more cash into financial system -Iceland missed signs of Liquidity Freeze. Argumentative Strategies- Attempts to persuade some one through providing reasoning- Arguments are modes of gaining: warranted assent, reasoned adherence, voluntary and informed acceptance. Arguments = Central route of persuasion- affects deepest and most stable changes in attitudes. Peripheral route of persuasion- Fickle and superficial changes in attitudes based only on emotions, authority, or association of ideas. -Healthy intercultural argumentation is necessary to IC, to give solid grounding and cooperation of people form different cultures. Problems with Intercultural Argumentation- Studies have shown that participants judging intercultural arguments say that often the arguments being presented are illogical, irrelevant, or muddled in thinking. Presents the question: Do people from other cultures have different logic? Three sources of difficulty in IC argumentation: -Speaker is unable to conceive their message precisely in conceptual terms- I did not know what to say -Speaker can conceptualize the message but cannot express it. I dont know how to say it -Speaker can conceptualize the problem, and knows how to express it, but will not do so for cultural reasons (inappropriate, impolite)- One cannot say that Non-communication- When no meaning comes across to the hearer Miscommunication- When an unintended message is communicated to the hearer Two types of communication failure concerning pragmatic dimension: www.notesolution.com
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