Metaphor and Argumentation- Two phenomena relating to the semantic and pragmatic
dimensions of global linguistics.
Metaphors- Semantic dimension relies on metaphorical strategies to conceptualize the
world, particularly when making sense of complex and abstract conceptual ideas. It is
done so metaphorically using simple references to our basic experiences of the physical
Ex: Complex social domain of economics and finance- Metaphor used Money is
liquid. These are simple words, but through applying what they associate with physically,
they can be used to express complex theory and meaning.
-Basic understanding of water being fluid, drying up, freezing.
-“Central banks inject more cash into financial system”
-“Iceland missed signs of Liquidity Freeze.”
Argumentative Strategies- Attempts to persuade some one through providing reasoning-
Arguments are modes of gaining: warranted assent, reasoned adherence, voluntary and
Arguments = Central route of persuasion- affects deepest and most stable changes in
Peripheral route of persuasion- Fickle and superficial changes in attitudes based only on
emotions, authority, or association of ideas.
-Healthy intercultural argumentation is necessary to IC, to give solid grounding and
cooperation of people form different cultures.
Problems with Intercultural Argumentation- Studies have shown that participants
judging intercultural arguments say that often the arguments being presented are illogical,
irrelevant, or muddled in thinking. Presents the question: Do people from other cultures
have different logic?
Three sources of difficulty in IC argumentation:
-Speaker is unable to conceive their message precisely in conceptual terms- “I did
not know what to say”
-Speaker can conceptualize the message but cannot express it. “I don’t know how
to say it”
-Speaker can conceptualize the problem, and knows how to express it, but will not
do so for cultural reasons (inappropriate, impolite)- “One cannot say that”
Non-communication- When no meaning comes across to the hearer
Miscommunication- When an unintended message is communicated to the hearer
Two types of communication failure concerning pragmatic dimension: