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Midterm

ANT203 Notes Test 1.pdf

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT203Y1
Professor
Xueda Song

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ANT203Y1: Test 1
LECTURE 1: INTRODUCTION
Anthropology (anthropos + logos, "the study of man")
focus: cultural and biological evolution of our species and primate relatives;
observation of adaptations
Evolution is change over time. In the biological sense, it occurs at the genetic level, and
results in the formation of new species.
Adaptation refers to biological or behavioural responses of an organism or population to
the environment
key human adaptations include:
brain size in relation to body
language use / creation
level and complexity of tool use
bipedalism
the fossil record tells us where and when adaptations occured
The four-field approach provides a holistic and broad ranging perspective on
anthropology by creating categories of study which all describe an aspect of humanity
1. Socio-cultural Anthropology
patterns of belief and behaviour in human cultures (extant or non-extant)
2. Linguistic Anthropology
concerned with origins and evolution of language
speech and language distinguish humans from other primates/animals
3. Archaeological Anthropology
analysis of what past populations have left behind: material culture
artifacts: objects made or modified by humans
4. Physical/Biological Anthropology
a scientific discipline; asks what it means to be human through the study of
the biology and behaviour of humans, other primates, and fossil ancestors
Physical/Biological Anthropology
originated in the 18th Century (1700s)
strong religious beliefs stated that all variation came from creation
first fossils were being found in Europe, some human -> beginning of
paleoanthropology
Paleoanthropology is the study of the evolution of humans, including their biology and
behaviour, based on data from the fossil record (using essentially the same methods as
archaology). The field includes:
attempts to reconstruct anatomy
sense of form and function of bones (for knowledge about locomotion, diet)
reconstruction of past ecosystems
ultimate goal: to understand circumstances that led to the origins of modern humans
Primate Paleontology looks at the entire fossil record for the order primates, which
originated around 65 million years ago around the extinction of the dinosaurs
primate paleontologists will also attempt reconstructions as above
suggest evolutionary relationships with other groups, including living ones
The primate fossil record spans 65 million years:
NAME DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION
Aegyptopithecus 35 M.A. Egypt ancestor of old word monkeys, apes,
and humans (potentially)
Rudapithecus 10 M.A. all over Europe
Australopithecus
afarensis (Lucy) 3.9 - 3.0 M.A. East Africa
provided important insight into
locomotion - was long thought to be the
first biped (we now have earlier
examples)
Homo floresiensis
("the hobbit")
18 - 13,000
years ago Indonesia
a metre tall; showed that humans were
not the only (hominid?) species left after
some went extinct 30,000 years ago
would expect v. human-like
characteristics, but actually quite
primitive - only as similar to us as
around the time of Lucy; nonetheless
existed during the same time period as
modern humans
Paleobiogeography studies the geographic distribution of fossil origins
how this changes over time in response to environmental changes (e.g. temp)
how the fossils are related to modern humans is important to anthropology
Anthropometry is the measure and analysis of body proportions
early literature documented variability in existing human populations
slide image: craniometer for dimensions
measures have been abused to racist ends
now used to plan and design the modern human environment - desks, chairs, etc.
data gives good sense of patterns of growth and development in humans, called
ontogeny (ex: can check that kids are growing normally by comparing to standard)
Osteology is the study of skeletal structure and function, which has made important
contributions to other areas (i.e. digging up a skeleton relates to the fossil record)
Bioarchaeology refers to the study of osteological material in an archaeological context
Paleopathology is the study of disease and trauma in past populations
many deficiencies and diseases leave clear marks in the fossil record (see slide)
Forensic Anthropology involves field and lab work to help identify and analyze human
remains, usually in relation to disasters or legal issues
stereomicroscope used to see trauma at the microscopic level
Physical/Biological Anthropology subfields
study of how people vary in response to environmental stressors, previously called
human population biology
now genetics is behind this greater interest - molecular anthropology studies
variations in the genetic makeup of humans, non-human primates, and (just
now beginning) fossil humans
ex: to what degree did Neanderthals contribute to our gene pool?
Primatology studies non-human primates, specifically their biology, behaviour,
diet, locomotion, communication, social behaviour, etc.
also important for understanding ourselves, and for determining methods of
conservation
Physical/Biological anthropology is a scientific discipline
observations and experiences are explained by hypotheses, which are tested with
information called data
used to be mainly qualitative, based on subjective descriptions, but
methods are now more quantitative
use of statistical methods has several advantages:
can show exactly how results are achieved
other researchers can attempt replicability of results to test the hypothesis
seemingly valid, tested hypothesis becomes a theory -- a well-supported
explanation
hypotheses are usually quite focused, while theories are broad
LECTURE 2: THE DEVELOPMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY
Surprising coincidence:
Darwin's On the Origin of Species published in 1859
Alfred Wallace wrote out an almost identical theory of evolution in 1858
How did occur to them both at nearly the same time?
The foundations for the realization had been laid throughout the recent past.
Early World Views
Existence of a divine creator, whose creation was perfect and in no need of change
Fixity of Species
once created, organisms remained unchanged, having been perfectly adapted
to their environments
no concept of extinction; fossils were considered the remains of dead
organisms, or of former ones who hadn't survived the biblical flood
having all been created individually by God, species were not interrelated
the Great Chain of Being, proposed by Aristotle (Scala naturae)
based on physical similarities between organism
humans did not belong to the animal kingdom and were placed above it
a Grand Design: God's plan for the universe
stemmed from the argument from design (complexity -> divinity)

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Description
ANT203Y1 Test 1LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTIONAnthropology anthroposlogos the study of manfocus cultural and biological evolution of our species and primate relatives observation of adaptationsEvolution is change over time In the biological sense it occurs at the genetic level and results in the formation of new species Adaptation refers to biological or behavioural responses of an organism or population to the environmentkey human adaptations includebrain size in relation to bodylanguage usecreationlevel and complexity of tool usebipedalismthe fossil record tells us where and when adaptations occuredThe fourfield approach provides a holistic and broad ranging perspective on anthropology by creating categories of study which all describe an aspect of humanity1Sociocultural Anthropology patterns of belief and behaviour in human cultures extant or nonextant2Linguistic Anthropologyconcerned with origins and evolution of languagespeech and language distinguish humans from other primatesanimals3Archaeological Anthropologyanalysis of what past populations have left behind material cultureartifacts objects made or modified by humans4PhysicalBiological Anthropologya scientific discipline asks what it means to be human through the study of the biology and behaviour of humans other primates and fossil ancestorsPhysicalBiological Anthropologyoriginated in the 18th Century 1700sstrong religious beliefs stated that all variation came from creationfirst fossils were being found in Europe some humanbeginning of paleoanthropologyPaleoanthropology is the study of the evolution of humans including their biology and behaviour based on data from the fossil record using essentially the same methods as archaology The field includesattempts to reconstruct anatomysense of form and function of bones for knowledge about locomotion dietreconstruction of past ecosystemsultimate goal to understand circumstances that led to the origins of modern humansPrimate Paleontology looks at the entire fossil record for the order primates which originated around 65 million years ago around the extinction of the dinosaursprimate paleontologists will also attempt reconstructions as abovesuggest evolutionary relationships with other groups including living onesThe primate fossil record spans 65 million yearsNAMELOCATIONDATEDESCRIPTIONancestor of old word monkeys apes Aegyptopithecus 35 MAEgyptand humans potentiallyRudapithecus10 MAall over Europeprovided important insight into Australopithecus locomotionwas long thought to be the 3930 MAEast Africaafarensis Lucyfirst biped we now have earlier examplesa metre tall showed that humans were not the only hominid species left after some went extinct 30000 years agowould expect v humanlike Homo floresiensis1813000 Indonesiacharacteristics but actually quite the hobbityears agoprimitiveonly as similar to us as around the time of Lucy nonetheless existed during the same time period as modern humansPaleobiogeography studies the geographic distribution of fossil originshow this changes over time in response to environmental changes eg temphow the fossils are related to modern humans is important to anthropologyAnthropometry is the measure and analysis of body proportionsearly literature documented variability in existing human populationsslide image craniometer for dimensionsmeasures have been abused to racist endsnow used to plan and design the modern human environmentdesks chairs etc data gives good sense of patterns of growth and development in humans called ontogeny ex can check that kids are growing normally by comparing to standardOsteology is the study of skeletal structure and function which has made important contributions to other areas ie digging up a skeleton relates to the fossil recordBioarchaeology refers to the study of osteological material in an archaeological contextPaleopathology is the study of disease and trauma in past populationsmany deficiencies and diseases leave clear marks in the fossil record see slideForensic Anthropology involves field and lab work to help identify and analyze human remains usually in relation to disasters or legal issuesstereomicroscope used to see trauma at the microscopic levelPhysicalBiological Anthropology subfields
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