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ANT204H1 Study Guide - Safe Sex

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Leslie Jermyn

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ANT204 Film and Tutorial Notes
May 05, L01 - Magnificent African Cake
What motivated Europeans to take over most of Africa in the late 19th century and how did they
decide which bits to claim for themselves?
-Scramble for Africa
oA process of invasion, occupation, colonisation and annexation of African
territory by the western powers
-Berlin conference, 1884-5
oRegulated colonization and trade in Africa. It is the formalisation of the Scramble
for Africa and ushered in a period of increased colonial activity on the part of the
European powers, while at the same time rendering the African people powerless
(eliminate their autonomy)
-New sources of raw materials for factories
-New market for its manufacturers
-New positions of advantage over economic rivals
-No matter how absurd, one must get hold of a position more advantageous than your
oE.g., Britain and the Gambia River territory thin strip of land the length of the
river and the width of a few miles (modern Gambia). Surrounded by French
How did they treat colonial subjects? How did they manage colonies?
-Harsh treatment of natives, exploitative, no respect
-Only by asserting that the natives are helpless and savage could Christian Europe justify
their taking of their country away from them
-Conquest = ruthless killings
-Disregard the natives (rule the land as if theres no indigenous people) whenever
good water and fertile land are found, settlers should be installed without questioning
whose land it may be

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-Forced into labour through taxation without a money economy of their own, they have
to work for the settlers to acquire European money to pay taxes
-Indirect rule use of local authority to manage affairs within the colony through promises
of privileges and support to the ruling group
oCheap and effective they profit off the forced production and dont have to deal
with any administration issues
oEuropeans became successful because of the native partnerships in the
-British thought of the Africans as inferior, labourers, while the French thought they could
be assimilated educating them in the French language and culture
- Military rule, civilian gov’t
How did colonized people react?
-Welcoming at first, they didnt know who or what these fair-skinned people are doing in
their land
-When they found out that they settlers demanded labour from them, as well as their
giving away their land, they rebelled.
-Due to the threat of violence, the Africans had no choice but to pay taxes to provide for
their family, keep their land and stay alive
What might be some of the consequences of this historical process on contemporary post-
colonial societies in Africa?
-Cash cropping (forced specialization of crops) can lead to desertification of the land
(because of the disruption of the traditional crop rotation) and famine ( because of
decreased production of food for themselves), which can lead to decreased production
and eventually poverty because they couldnt produce enough to meet the quota
-Prices of exported goods fixed, wages insufficient to buy essential goods (imported)
-An economy dependent on import of goods and export of raw materials
-Destroyed stability of rural Africa because workers had to move to find work
oOld order of society undermined by migrant labour

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-Decimated populations from violent conquests
-Hostilities between different ethnic people brought together by the random partition of
African territory
Tutorial 1
-Colonialism economic exploitation at the heart of political domination of one state over
-Global supremacy - political aspect of colonialism
-Assimilation/education/civilization sociocultural aspect of colonialism
-Ethnocentric belief rural responsibility of the white man to go out and civilized >> white
mans burden
-Education = brainwashing; to create sympathizers
-Rhetoric of justification whitewash people to cover up the economic and political
-Dissemination of information slow back then swo managing perceptions within the home
country easy
-Impact: taxation, migration, hierarchy (divided rule)
-Transformed subsistence based system to cash-based system
oFrom diverse crops to just one (cash) crop
oExcess/surplus could be sold for extra profit; kinship, trade reciprocity = all gone
and replaced by the concept of selling all crops for cash
oSystem of dependency
-Post-colonialism discourse that consists of reactions to, and analysis of, the cultural
legacy of colonialism
-Neo-colonialism political control by an outside power of a country that is in theory
sovereign and independent, esp through the domination of its economy
oFormally independent countries with still existing economic dependence to
external powers, esp their former mother country
-Divide and rule exacerbating differences (e.g., ID cards)
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