ANT204H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Nba Coach Of The Year Award, Christian Fundamentalism, Saartjie Baartman

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28 Oct 2012
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1) “Anarchist Style Organizing”
a) Definition:
o calls for a system of public ownership of means of production, a system of
consensus with no more cohesion
o social anarchism rejects private property,
o Values that a society should be organized on a purely voluntary basis without
any form of cohesion.
o Comes from the Greek meaning “without hierarchy”
o Organization without force or someone above giving orders.
o A theoretical social state in which there is no governing person or body of
persons, but each individual has absolute liberty (without the implication of
disorder).
b.) Significance:
o Anarchism asks you to reject government and all forms of authority, to question
their very existence and legitimacy.
o To see the real possibilities and potentials for mankind you need to be able to
think outside the “box” completely. In a sense anarchism gives you an objective
view of political potentialities; it calls for the complete freedom of man from all
forms of authority and oppression. If we cannot dream of such then we have
forsaken the potential (and perhaps goal) of the future already.
o Thomas Jefferson said, “Question everything with boldness, even the very existence
of god.” One could say there are many things in society that appear as gods:
government, two parties, necessity of a military, crony capitalism, etc. As
Herbert Marcuse explains in One-Dimensional Man, the problem with man today
is that he no longer looks at what ought, but what is. Too often what is is seen as
rational, not what ought to be. These modern day gods, like the idea of a deity
are left unquestioned because they are a given assumption. If we are to escape
this prison of our own thoughts, anarchism provides a possible way by breaking
all assumptions, even if viewed as a somewhat romanticized ideal from another
time and place when things appeared less under control and people dared to
dream big.
c.) Examples (x2):
o “Revolutionary Catalonia” in the late 20’s was a part of Catalonia Spain
controlled by anarchists and socialist trade unions/parties during the Spanish
Civil War. During this revolution workers gained control of businesses and
factories , collectivization of farmland from nationalists and the catholic clergy
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o An epic example in our time, an anarchic act would be the pulling down of the
Suddam Hussain statue during the “war in Iraq”. Though there is speculation
that the press did it, it is an example of dismantling (literally) an established
hierarchy and the rejection of rules that the people were forced to believe would
keep the weak alive.
2) Anthropocentrism
a.) Definition:
o The idea that humans are the most important being in the universe.
o Interpreting the world in terms of human values and experiences
o Term can be used interchangeably with humanocentrism: the tendency for
humans to regard themselves as being the most prominent being in the universe
b.) Significance:
o This ideology promoted the idea of the great chain of being (proposed that
animals, plants, and all non-living things lack a mortal soul and awareness,
therefore they are at our disposal and ultimately won’t suffer), which became
the basic ideology of western moral thought
o Influences ethical judgments about interactions with other organisms. These
ethics are often used to legitimize treating other species in ways that would be
considered morally unacceptable if humans were similarly treated. For example,
animals are often treated very cruelly during the normal course of events in
medical research and agriculture. This prejudiced treatment of other species has
been labeled "speciesism” by ethicists.
o Another implication of the anthropocentric view is the belief that humans rank
at the acme of the natural evolutionary progression of species and of life. This
belief is in contrast to the modern biological interpretation of evolution, which
suggests that no species are "higher" than any others, although some clearly
have a more ancient evolutionary lineage, or may occur as relatively
c.) Examples (x2):
o Any species that are of potential use to humans can be a "resource" to be
exploited. This use often occurs in an unsustainable fashion that results in
degradation, sometimes to the point of extinction of the biological resource, as
has occurred with the dodo, great auk, and other animals. If man believed that
animals were equally important in ecology, then protecting them would take a
higher priority.
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o Christian Evangelicals often hold anthropocentric views when it comes to
natural resources and the debate on climate change. Many evangelicals neglect
the facts when it comes to climate change and the human influence on our
ecology, for they hold high the belief that natural resources such as fuel, water,
trees, etc., are on earth purely for human disposal and we should not commit any
effort in preserving these resources, for they were made by god for us to exploit.
3) Climate Ethnography
a.) Definition:
Climate Ethnography is a methodology that positively addresses how local groups
can inform the global community about taking action in response to climate change.
b.) Explanation:
Susan Crate describes this methodology as urgent, reflexive and critically
collaborative. What she can mean by urgency is that this issue needs to be
addressed now rather than later and that direct action needs to be taken. As
Professor Bickford mentioned in lecture, it is more cost effective to conserve the
Earth now than later. Reflexivity refers to how anthropologists relate their field of
research to themselves and the social constructs that they take for granted. Again,
climate ethnography is about addressing the global community through research
from local groups. To be reflexive means that how can we use what we have learned
from different cultural groups and relate it to issues of power and hegemony in our
own societies. Lastly, to be critically collaborative is for anthropologists to work
together and engage in discussion of how climate change can be addressed, which
also has moral implications of their role in society.
b.) Relevance:
If we tie these terms together, one can see that climate ethnography is a response to
the hegemonic neoliberalist resistance discussed in lecture. In order to sustain
capitalist structure of society, politicians deny the validity of concerns regarding
climate change. For instance, Harper denies such concerns because of his
fundamentalist Christian beliefs.
c.) Examples:
From lecture, La Via Campesina movement which demonstrates how climate change
can lead to loss of jobs and homes; Aboriginal movement to shut down Alberta oil
sands/Douglas Channel; All of these examples demonstrate how climate change can
be addressed from a local front to the global community
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