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ANT253H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 29 pages long!)


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT253H1
Professor
Marcel Danesi
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
ANT253H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Tuesday, September 12, 2017
ANT253: Lecture 1: Intro to Language
What is language?
-lexicon
-use of tongue to make meaning
-can be physiological - body language/use of hands
-language can also be delivered through other mediums
-tones - signals, not words
-no theory of relativity without language
-Pānini (Italian scholar): grammar - language as a system
-took words of Sanskrit poetry -> broke them down; rules of how they’re composed
-saw language not as a single unit, but as units made of smaller units
-i.e. incompletely = in + complete + ly (classify the parts to have a sign)
-morphemes: smallest unit of meaning in any language
-lexical/lexeme: unit of language that can not be subdivided; abstract unit applied to
family of words related by meaning or form
-Lógos: ancient Greek: means both word and thought (no thought without a word)
-each language = used to solve universal problems of knowledge and social organization
-language attrition: the loss of languages in the world
-losing speech
-reason: need for international/global universals (use one type of language)
-language families: LATIN (mother language); GREEK
-ethnicity
-historical connection
-language reflects the specific meaning
!1
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Tuesday, September 12, 2017
-language = adapted (we do not come into the world equipped with it)
-phonemes: sound that indicates meaning
-symbols - imprint words
-oral cultures still exist - learn language by talking
(see more in textbook)
-use language to refer to things - meaning (no isolated words) - sentences, phrases, stories,
connections, etc.
-language makes interaction possible
-talking acknowledges that we know each other even if it means nothing (phatic) - i.e. “hey,
how’s it going”
-double articulation: (i.e. music - 12 tones to create all kinds of music)
-acquiring language: 1. use language to communicate with others
-branches
-larynx
-Plato: poverty of stimulus
-feral children
-Noam Chomsky: universal grammar (listen to language, put them together, construct
language without being taught or exposed; just talk)
-i.e. juice + orange cat - seen property and extracted it (orange) to apply it to another
property
-
!2
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