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Mid Term 2 Study Guide

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University of Toronto St. George
Marcel Danesi

Anthropology Midterm #2 Review Linguistic and Semiotic Anthropology Lecture #1 1. What is linguistics? The study of language 2. What is semiotics? The study of signs 3. Is the biological character of language a thing or an action? It is an action. 4. What is the ZZ[LZZ}[}oL22M The hardware is the brain and the software is syntax, morphology, and phonology 5. What are the material products and immaterial effects of language? The material products are speech (sound waves) and text (marks on paper, print, digital display) 6. What is the Innateness Hypothesis and who proposed it? ZJ}L[^oL_oL228Z]o]}}^o}_oL22]Z]LL]L,}K}Z]LZ[L] was proposed by Noam Chomsky 7. What do all languages draw from? All languages }Ko]K]Z}}ZZ]oo]L2]Z] ZZ^}2KK_} learn easily 8. Why can we understand Yoda? Because he uses linguistic rules that are humanly possible and are found in some languages 9. What is an example of a linguistic rule that our brain does not learn easily? The words in a question put backwards, rules like these are not found in any language 10. What does language do? Makes it possible to communicate and organizes (creates) reality 11. What are the social aspects of language? www.notesolution.comHow language functions is used in society, differentiation, communication, and construction of reality 12. What is differentiation in language? Languages and dialects exist, the difference is determined politically and socially 13. Provide examples of languages and dialects. Languages = Danish, Norwegian, Russian, etc. Dialects = Chinese dialects, Italian dialects 14. What are sociolectssocial dialects? They differentiate class, gender, and ethnicity in the same geographic location and within the same languagedialect 15. What are foreign accents? They distinguish between native and foreign born 16. JZ]ZZ oZZ] o^Z o]Z_ }KKL] ]}LK}oM Encoding and decoding from a speaker (sender) to a channel and then a hearer (receiver) 17. What does this model assume, and is it likely to be true? It assumes that there is an uncoded message independent of language and it is probably not true 18. JZ]ZKLZ }LZ ]}L[LZo][]LZZ }LZ ]}L}o][M Construction = formation byin society and is not a part of nature Reality= the world as it makes sense to us; the way we understand the world 19. How is it constructed? And is it objective? It is socially constructed and it is not necessarily objective 20. How does language construct reality? It creates an understanding of distinct concepts and categories as if they were a part of the objective world 21. What is an example of language constructed reality? @Z]ZL}]Z]L ]}LLZ2L[LZo[]LKLoL22Z]L o]L2}o Z]LZ7}o Japanese, Vietnamese and Sioux
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