Socio-Cultural Ethnographic Examples Terminology

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University of Toronto St. George
Marcel Danesi

SOCIO-CULTURAL TEXTBOOK: ETHNOGRAPHIC EXAMPLESTERMINOLOGY CHAPTER 1: Culture and Meaning N Culture the system of meanings about the nature of experience that are shaped by people and passed on from one generation to another N Ethnocentric Fallacy the idea that our beliefsbehaviours are righttrue, while those of others are wrongmisguided N Ethnocentrism the tendency to judge the beliefsbehaviours of other cultures from the perspective of ones culture N Relativism attempt to understand the beliefsbehaviours of other cultures in terms of the culture in which they are found N Relativistic Fallacy it is impossible to make moral judgments about the beliefsbehaviours of members of other cultures N Objectivity statequality ob being objective N Morality quality of being in accordance with standards of rightgood conduct N Politically Committed Anthropology anthropologists must serve as witnesses and reporters of human rights abuses and the suffering of the pooroppressed N Ethnographic Method immersion of researchers in the lives and cultures of the peoples they are trying to understand in order to comprehend the meanings these people ascribe to existence N Participation Observation active participation of researcherobserver in the lives of those being studied N Marginal Person an outsider who knows only something of what it is to be an insider N Cultural Text a way of thinking about culture as a text of significant symbols (words, gestures, drawings) N Turkey Virginity testing- related to way Turkish villagers explain reproductive process Young women- avoid sexual relations before marriage (not applicable to men) N Wari Consume dead: fit with dealing with their emotionsmeaning they impose on the world :7L3J-4Z,8.438L070L79 N Santa Carina (MEX) World controlled by- witchesspiritual forces N Bali Balinese shy about open conflict-> cockfights- demonstrate the struggle for status in everyday life Outcomes of fight translate to status N CDN Hockey Ritual (brings ppl together w common focus) Hockey affirms values of success, builds character, cooperation Violence and competition are part of everyday CDN life, hockey shows how both are important to CDNs N Happy Meal American demographic, ecological patterns, agriculturalindustrial history, gender roles (w toys) Chapter 2: Progress and Development N Hadza nomadic farmers; Tanzania; women responsible for collecting food; meat is only thing considered as food N JuHoansi foragers; struggle w limited tech to obtain food; spent many hrswk collecting for vegetables (80% diet) N Population Density number of people living in an given area N Consequences of High Population Densities simple agriculture is consequences of pop growth; growing own crops N Potatoe Production New Guinea; slashburn; energy cost per calorie= lower than US (who much more) Western agriculture= wastefulinefficient N Textiles in EnglandIndia India produces cheaper clothe (compared to ENG) English factories= copy Indian textiles-> destroyed Indian market N Opium Trade China British demandedreceived additional trading rights to china= opening up market for opiumtextiles Increased opium addicts in china, and exports from England-> IndiaChina N US Slavery Slaves= Africa-> US (cotton production); cheap labour N Cherokee Indian Tribes; large plots of land: Carolina, Georgia Thousands of acres of land taken from Indian-> cotton production
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