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Genevieve Dewar

Lecture 1: Evolution Processes -Mutation -Genetic Flow  movement of genes from different population of species -Genetic Drift  Due to random sampling, change frequency of genes in population occur. Gregor Mendel -breeding experiments with pea plants -genetics traits aren’t passed by one parent instead its a package of genes from both parents -package of information = genes (acquired at conception) -homozygous: same gene from each parent -heterozygous: two different genes from parents -alleles: whole set of different forms for a given gene -expressed allele: visble trait (dominant genes - always expressed, recessive genes - overpowered by dominant genes) -genetic makeup contains an allele from each parent -dominant genes don’t have dominance over recessive ones in meiosis -phenotype = outward appearance -genotype = all genes (DNA and genetic structure) -genome = gene pool. Range of alleles in the species -co-dominant genes = genes that blend together -46 chromosomes (23 from each parent) -22 autosomes, 2 sex chromosomes -X = largest chromosome -Y = smallest chromsome -XX female, XY male What Causes New Traits? -changes in genes -changes in chromosomes -new combinations or complexes within genes Process of Evolution -Mutation - ex. pollutatants, radiation, insecticides -Genetic Flow - the transfer of alleles from one population to another -Genetic Drift - survival of the fittest Archaeology -study of human history & prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts -history vs. prehistory: history is recorded, prehistory is before writing -Maritime archaeolgy: ships -Historical archaeolgy: old buildings, etc. -monumental archaeology: ex. angkor watt in cambodia or pyramids. big complex structures -paleolithic or cave archaeology: origins of humans Bioarchaeology -get lots of info from burials Paleoanthropology -homo floresiensis: hobbits. a meter tall. indonesia. fully developed brains Primatology -models for intrepreting our own ancestors -our brains are bigger especially in the area that develops language ------------------ Natural Selection adapt to environment inherited variety exists in individuals sexual selection - mates are picked based on advantageous traits species: breed only with eachother (can’t interbreed), produces fertile & live offspring. Shared behavioural traits 1859 - “on the origins of species by means of natural selection”. Darwin first person to take a stab at how old the earth was - 6000 years ago, 4004BC (published in 1650) - Irish Archbishop Catastrophists -George Cuvier -decided that if the earth is only 6000 years old then global violent catastrophes mustve been responsible for things like the grand canyon, etc. -Rev.Burnet brought up slow erosion by looking at mountains and erosion Uniformatism -processes we see today occured in the past as well -James Hutton: geology was slow working, uniform & natural Linneus -Comparative biology (similarities and differences between species) -first to classify -taxon levels -Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Genus, Species -linked us with animals Lamarck - first mechanisms 1.species adapted to their environment (great idea) 2.progression towards perfection 3.inheritance of acquired characteristics Natural Selection - the mechanisms we use today -works on individuals, evolution works on populations -individuals dont evolve populations do -those who are best adapted will survive and be more sexually attractive -increased frequency of a trait within a pop. -variation is random with no direction -what does natural selection act on? : Speciation -phyletic graduation: species slowly change through time -puncuated equilibrium: species stay the same for a very long time until major events ex. Finches -adaptive radiation: 60-65 million years ago, meteorite wiped out dinos, environment changed, mammalian animals were better adapted Primates -mammals -opposable thumbs -big brains relative to body size -social structures -tools -vision is our dominant sense Main Primate groups -humans, chimps, gorillas, apes - specialized primates -monkeys (new world: south america, old world: south africa, asia) -tarsiers: huge eyes -lemurs -extant: alive today -we are apes, not evolved from apes ------------------------------- Processes of Evolution -positive traits that allow species to be successful get passed on -mutation - individuals -genetic drift - populations -genetic flow - populations genotype: recipe for makes an indivual. genetic code phentotype: outward appearance (traits). mutation: mistakes when your dna is replicating, chemical pollutants, inectides, cosmic radiation. gene flow: gene pool seperates into 2 diff groups (demes), new mutations in each of these groups, if they dcome together again to form a big group those new traits will be introduced. maintains species genetic drift: one pop splits through fission into 2 different demes if there is no coming together again 2 new species will develop. Founder’s effect: small deme, amount of genetic variety is small. traits can be bred out, can lose traits people become more and more related (inbred) negative things can become the norm instead of getting bred out ex. small heads and small eyes. promotes speciation humans and neatherthals shared a common gene pool 200-800,000 years ago sample size of one neanderthal genographic project: submit dna smaples, see the big genetic profile from where we started lineage 1 started somewhere in africa or east africa lineage 2 africa lineage 3 migration out of africa ---------- lecture 4 Surveys 1.walk around looking for artefacts 2.record densest area of artefacts assemblage - implies spatial reletedness law of superposition: stratigraphy (layers) - animal burrows, rivers and sttuff make oit untrue ratio of c14 to c12 can be really high in times of lots of solar activity --------------------lecture 6 Primate Tree -y axis determines time -x axis extant or living primates -most primatives = lemur, dog like nose (sense of smell) -tasiers: big eyes -new world monkeys: south american monkeys -old world monkeys: african, euroasian monkeys -hominoids: orangutans, humans, bonobos -primate tree = claudistic tree -phonetic tree: what you look like - phenotype -claudistic tree: shared derived traits, genetic relationships Hominoids vs. hominins -hominoids - greater apes -hominins - humans and chimps and past relations (ancestors) -how would you define a hominoid from a monkey? larger brains, big bodies, don’t have tails, quadrapedal (walk around on 4 legs), tool use, 2:1:2:3 dental formula different genera: humans = homo gibbons = halobatis chimps & bonobo = pan gorillas = gorillas orangutans = pongos -modifications to the Humerus: capitulum (because we hung on trees) -how do we identify Hominoids in the fossil record? fossil identification -how do we recognize them verus monkeys or lemurs/lorises? fossil identification Hominins -homo + pan + ancestors of both -genetic studies 5-8MYA -share 98% of DNA -how do we identify them vs other hominoids? fossil identification. gibbons vs. humans vs. orangutans -gibbons: long arms to swing in trees -orangutan: longer arms (not as long as gibbons), knuckle walking (specialized and imobile wrists), quadrapedal -humans: bipedalism (walk on two legs), our legs are longer than our arms, modified pelvis (holds up our inners), curved lower back, leg bones longer Bipedality -humans centrally, apes its in the back -pelvis shorter on humans: to hold up our insides and a baby
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