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University of Toronto St. George
Shawn Lehman

Lecture 1  3 concepts to understand o What is the historical development of biological science o What is the diversity of life; particularly that life associated with our evolutionary lineage o What natural processes produce this diversity  Evolution is about diversity  Evolution is more than just about life, it is about geology - the pattern of land formation and destruction; it’s about climate  Evolutionary anthropology – trying to place human evolution, human behavior, human ecology within the framework constructed by evolutionary biology  Everything that is done in evol anthro can be grouped inro 5 research disciplines – 1. Primatology; 2. Paleoanthropology 3. Human variation 4. Medical anthropology 5. Forensic anthro  Primatology – the scientific study of our closest relatives; ie chimpanzees, leamers  Study their behavior, what they eat and why; where they are etc  Primates aren’t like us; we are primates; we have only minor genetic diff from monkeys  Paleanthro is the study of us from the historical, fossal basis  Fossil - organic material that has been turned into stone  They remove the soil from the earth and they excavate fossil material representative of our earliest primate or human ancestors  Human variation – we are diverse in terms of many feautures but we are one species  Medical anthro – how humans associate disease and health whether from cultural or genetic perspective  Quest – how is it possible to have starving kids in one part of the world and obese kids in another part  Forensic anthro – study of skeletal remains of humans  Trying to figure out how evolution is influencing us and what is making us less or more diverse etc  Anthos do this by 1. State the problem 2. Gather all the relevant info related to the problem 3. form hypothesis – informed statement or fact 4. test the hypothesis -> test it by reporting and analyzing data 6.draw and state the conclusion of our work 7. Repeat  Good scientific study is repeated many times -> will produce scientific theory based in many studies  To come up with scientific theory took long time – bc of 4 issues 1. Didn’t know how old the earth was – had to deal with religious concepts • Religious teachings were the law; if didn’t agree with them, could be killed • Believed that earth was created in 4004 bc 2. Didn’t have scientific method – people could write whatever they wanted; scientists went to guana and didn’t find what wanted to so made up a story that saw headless people 3. Fixity of species - believed in unique separate creation of human beings in the image of god; since god made us a certain way we couldn’t change 4.  Linaeus – doctor who loved to study plants  Realized that there was no organized way of naming them  Came up with a way of organizing plants’ diversity  When he became well known people started to send him plants so he could classify them; looked at the physical similarities  We still use binomial nomenclature – system of writing down organizational name for living and extinct creatures  The first letter of the genus is always capitalized  Written in latin bc its dead lang – will not change  Species are lower case  The name is either underlined or italisized  He was not an evolutionist; he was christian – believed the teachings of the church  He thought he was cataloguing god’s good work; didn’t believe in evolution  Nature’s lab (?)- everything was built by god at certain attention levels; didn’t pay much attention when built worms; paid attention when built humans  Leclerc – wrote huge volumes in the natural history  He reasoned that earth was not a few thousand years old, like the church said (4004 bc)  He thought it was 75000 years old; got in trouble from the church – had to recount or would die  He talked about biogeography – where things are and why; tried to figure out why some regions looked more like others  He gave is the idea that earth was old; ideas about variability in species distribution and abundance  Lamark – the first model that tried to explain how new species came to be; called the theory of ‘inherence of acquired characteristics’; living things have vital juices inside of them and under extreme conditions an organism can change its physical form and survive, then pass the new characteristics to the offspring, similarly characteristics can be lost  Darwin went first to medical school, he failed then went into theology  Free time he spent collecting insects and learning about natural history  After he finished degree in theology he went on expedition  He collected fossils, plans, animals and shipped them back to Europe to be identified by scientists  He came to realize that there could not be fixity of species  He reasoned that all the variety in the species must be advantageous – can lead to certain individuals producing more offspring; if that variety passes from one generation to the next then it will slowly take over the population – will become what most individuals will look like  The variation would, through time, result in the creation of new species  He was a great synthesizer; read that many more organisms are born that can survive; he realized that the environment is allowing only certain individuals to reproduce successfully; as the environment changes it will select certain characteristics of those organisms and this may lead to change  He came up with the theory of natural selection; reasoned that there must be common ancestry for everything on the planet  species have evolved due to the process of nature selecting for individuals who get more offspring than others; the characteristics that allow individual to make lots of babies show up in that individual’s babies  You can also be selected against  Natural selection can selected over and against individuals  Alfred russel walles – made his living colleting animals and plants in the jungle and selling them to historians  He realized that there is diversity of life  He heard about darvin and write him a letter telling him about his idea of environment selecting for and against indiv ; they co-discovered the idea of natural selection  Presented their results; published his book  3 things told in the book o There was struggle for existence – there only so much food but an infinite number of people that can be born; something must be suppressing population o There is variation in fitness – the ability to make babies; some people have trait that allows them to do better when nature is changing may allow the trait to pass on to future generations; the variation must be heritable; it has to be able to transmit itself from parents to offspring; he didn’t know how that trait moved o Reasoned that there was no progression in evolution; evolution is not about perfection; its not about achieving a goal; its random; things can go belter, worse or extinct o Sexual selection – sometimes nature doesn’t produce traits, sometimes the member of the opposite sex selects for traits; ie females select males for mating, males dance  Given evolution why aren’t we perfect, have heart disease?- environments always changes and it changes faster than we can catch on to  The average generation for humans is 14-16 years ? – long time to respond to environmental pressures; we can never catch on to the environment but doing the best that we can??  Darvin didn’t coin the term survival of the fittest – misconception  Term coined by herbert spencer; human societies operate like nature, we are not doing service by supporting those that are less fortunate  Societies don’t undergo biological evolution, individuals do; societies evolve but don’t undergo biology evolution  According to darvin companionship, friendship, love- characteristics that help our species; never said that organisms with the biggest claus will make the most babies  Some people came to view darvin’s ideas as attack on their religious faith,  Couldn’t figure how traits are passed from one generation to the next  He supported some aspects of lamarkianism – gemmules are particles of inheritance and carried in the blood  Mendel provided the answer to how traits are passed on  Did experiments by growing pea plants  Why picked them  They indreed – can produce pea plants that produce only specific characters generation after generations, some are only purple, some are only white  Can create hybrids – can breed purple flower with white flower  All the traits are easily observable – size, colour  Can grow lots of them in small area  Baby plants make other baby plants quickly  Self-fertilized – can make their own babies  First he bred pure breeding line (either pure yellow or pure green peas)  Then he allowed the pure breeding plants to cross pollinate – red with each other; looked at the offspring  All of the offspring were yellow seed – f1 generaition  F1 self- pollinated; the f 2 generation always had ratio of 3-1  Said that each plant carried a factor  Factor came in two sets – ie; factor for tall and factor for short plant  The factors determine the physical characteristic of the plants  In pure breeding lines there is only one copy of the factor  In humans some traits are dominant while others are recessive  Not everything sorts out according to mendelles law – ie eye colour  Back then didn’t know the genetic structure of organisms Lecture 2  Will get 2-3 questions about genetics on the test  Genetics is about modern synthesis of evolutionary biology  Modern synthesis includes info on genetics  We measure things at the level of individual; we look at how genes move in and out of popualtions?  There are two types of cells in every mammal body –1. somatic cells – brain cells, heart cells, skin cells etc -> representative of an organism; 2. gemetes – sex cell (testes in males and ovaries in females)  Inside the cell there is nucleus – where the genetic info is stored for everyone the planet  Everything in genetic code that says for you to look the way you are, function the way you do etc is located in cell in the middle of your body  All the action is in chromosomes  Deoxyribonucleic acid (dna)  Hydrogen bonds are very strong - don’t come apart easily -> made up of 4 kinds of bases- adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine ; the code on one side of dna strand determines everything  Dna stays in the nucleus  Rna – dictates protein formation; will determine if the genes will be expressed or not; rna gets the material that is needed to make protein; gets info of what material to use from dna; bring material to cellular factory (ribosome) where the protein is made  Rna looks lie one half of dna; not double stranded but single stranded molecule  Protein – amino acids joined together; building blocks of our life  Pur bodies make amino acids from digestive process or from exposure to environment  Each protein that we need had a specific function  Ie hemoglobin – protein that transports oygen though blood to cells in the body; as food enters into digestive tract body will produce proteins (called enzymes) – will break down the materials into usable form  There is caffeine in coffee – cats and dogs might die from it; humans evolved protein that can break down and detoxify caffeine, cant sand dogs didn’t  Transcription - process of info from dna is copied to rna  Translation – process of how rna works with other parts of cell to produce protein  Dna can uzip – 4 bases come apart; rna interacts with one side of dna and makes a mirror image copy of the code on one side of dna; mirror copy – opposite of what is on the strand  Once rna has code fr protein, it leaves the nucleus, dna zips again; mrna – rna that has the code; mrns leaves the nucleus and goes into the cell to produce protein  Dna is the blueprint, mrna does all the works; mrna uses info in a specific way by the order of 3 bases  In rna thymine is not present – instead uracil is substituted for it – to make sure there is no error in the code – typo in the book 27; nucleotide seq of aattgc on one side of dna results in a corresponding mrna sequence of uuaacg – opposite of whats found on dna  Have strand of messenger rns  Codon – code for aminoacid  Each part of mrna will code for specific amino acid  What aminoacids will be coded will depend on where the translation process starts (?)  Trna – bring in amino acid  Have genetic sequence along mrna; every 3 of them represent codon- code fr one amino acid; trna has to be perfect match to the codon -> decodes info on mnrns – flips it back how it was on dna; Trna brings in amino acid  Ribosomes – factory where the process takes place, moves along mrna while the amino acids attach  Release factor stops the process  The chain of amino acids represents protein – then goes on to do the job that was designed to do  Chromosomes come in pairs; we have code on chromosome that specifies a protein – called gene -> can be passed on from one generation to the next  Phenotype – the observable characteristic of organism; may not represent the genetic component of the organism; there are things hidden in the genes  Genotype – the genetic info; every aminoacid sequence is genotype  There in variation in humans – large part of that has to do with variations in genes; there is gene that says how to form an eye etc; the same in every person, where we see variation is in eye colour  variants of the gene – called alleles  In mendel there was allele for seed colour; yellow and green  Alleles occur on homologous addresses of genes?; geneas are located on chromosomes  When describe allele variation – use 2 terms: homozygous – the address of both sides of chromosome has the same kind of allele; is both sides have allele for yellow seed  Heterozygous – diff genes or diff alleles on corresponding locations in chromosomes  Dominant allele – allele variation that will be expressed phenotypically; will dominate (hide) the phenotypic expression of recessive allele  upper case – dominant; recessive – lowercase  Recessive will be expressed phenotypically when they are homozygous  Ie have recessive allele in homozygous condition that specifies mandibular tori – bones behind teeth; wife doesn’t carry it bc offspring don’t have it  ? square – a way of figuring out what physical expression of genes will be given a certain probability  Mandel was getting ration – 3 yellow to 1 green bc he was looking only at the phenotypes; there was 3 to one chance that the seed would be yellow and 1 in 4 that the seed will be green  In case of genes the ratio is 1:2:1 (one homozygous dominant, 2 heterozygous dominant, 1 homozygous recessive)  A lot of human traits don’t sort out by mandalian genetics; many traits require hundreds of genes ti be phenotypically expressed; some genes control many traits  There are no genes for intelligence, compassion etc  Mutation is an error or change in the genetic code  Ie some bases changed from c to g etc  Randomly occurring process; don’t where and when it will happen  we do know some things that cause genetic mutations – exposure to ultraviolet radiation; we have a way of dealing with it but up to a point beyond which uv can penetrate the skin, enter the cell structures of our bodies and alter the cells so that they grow uncontrollably and spread to other cells – called skin cancer  some mutations are natural – do nothing; vast majority of expressed mutations are harmful – called deleterious (?)  can be beneficial but extremely rarely  the mutation that is beneficial now may be succeeding generations be harmful to individuals  mutations is the ultimate source of new genetic materials in populations – the only way we get new alleles and genes  mutation can happen through error (cells replicates itself in error and causes mutation), due to exposure of radioation; due to exposure to mutagens; there are certain chemicals and viruses that can alter our genetic code  mutations -> the only way we get new alleles in genes  another force of evolution is one that effects populations and the genetics of populations – called genetic drift  important bc 1 reduces genetic variation in population 2. More likely to occur in small populations compared to large pop 3. Tends to increase genetic variation btw populations – happens bc not all individuals reproduce; due to lack of opportunity, inability, isolation, culture  the movement of genetic material form one generation to the next changes in terms of its proportion  pink flowers have dominant a; white flowers have recessive A; through random chance in the second generation, the freq of two alleles changed from 17% A to 50% A?  when we allow two of the plants to reproduce in 2 nd generation, the recessive allele completely disappears  bc of limited number of individuals the freq of genes will change – genetic drift  sometimes it happens bc the entire group of species is restricted to only a few individuals; the genetic diversity before was higher than it is now?  Gene flow – moves genes btw populations; movement of genes from one population into another  Increases within population genetic variation – adding new genes to the population, adding variability  Through time as individuals spread genes through population, secondary population will match to the original population – reducing variability btw genetic variation  Natural selection – another force of natural evolution – nature selects for certain individuals  Its in regard to fitness – successful reproduction; the movement of individual’s genes from one generation to the next – it is largely deterministic, not random in terms of characters that are passed; there is deterministic process that exists through the tree of life – humans will not have tails etc  Can have natural selection happen but doesn’t mean that biological evolution is occurring ->means that in one generation nature selected for particular people over others, those individuals can be selected against in the future (?)  We can have other ways for biological evolution to occur – mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, sexual selection; natural selection is not synonymous with biological evolution  There are many ways for selection to happen 1 directional selection2. Stabilizing selection  3. Distruptive selection  the birds have varying characteristics (ie feather colour); have freq distribution of original population  something happened in the environment – selected for certain individuals; others didn’t reproduce; measure the population again; ie individuals at the extreme ends were selected against; population squeezed in – lower variability at extremes -> called stabilizing selection – selection against extreme individuals or selection for common individuals – most common type of selection in mammals  sometimes nature will select for one extreme form – entire population shift to being darker; directional selection  in case of catastrophies for example can get selection against average form – doenst happen often; called disruptive selection; extreme survive but common die out  adaptation – means that an individual is responding to something in the environment  it is a process (change of some aspect of individual) and it is feature (actual thing that allow that individual to survive better than conspesifics (members of the same species)  when organisms change allowing them to better survive in the environment so otherwise they wouldn’t be able to survive – process of adaptation; typically we see the feature – the character that performs the function that somehow helps the organism survive and reproduce  adaptations are rare; not as rare as mutations  adaptation of parasitic wasps – result of milions of years of adaptation to the environment of being inside another organism; lay the eggs inside the caterpillars  now will talk about macroevolution; large scale changes at or above the species level  important to know how old the earth was so we could explain the species change and formation  our species have been evolving though millions of years  species can form in variety of ways  biological species concept – male and female produce an offspring they are members of the same species  pholygenetic species concept – we look for shared common ancestry btw the taxes (?) plural for taxon (designation)  controversial –makes it interesting (?)  we don’t know if its adaptive or non adaptive; do we need intermediate forms for speciation to occur?  When we put all the info together – get modern evolutionary synthesis  Random mutations – usually natural or bad  Natural selection – deterministic process that allows some individuals to survive better than others in an environment  FINISH Lecture 3  Primates are mammals  Primates – the highest order of mammals; includes men together with apes and monkeys  Mammal – warm blooded animals that are distinguished by possession of hair and fur; females secrete milk  3 characters that define mammal 1. are warm blooded - They are animals like us that an use physiological processes to maintain stable body temperature; metabolize food – can keep warm; also shiver and sweat 2. have hair 3. feed milk to the young  Primates differ from mammals by having o Hands and feet that can grasp o We have clavicle – collarbone o Have radius and ulna – bones in the arm o Have frontation – eyes at the front (when combined with stereoscopic vision, it allows us to have depth perception); stereoscopic vision – the nerves from the eyes run to both sides of the brain – allows us to see things in stereo  There are animals that have some of those characteristics but all those characteristics together define us as primates  Depth perception is important bc it allows us to judge distance of things in 3 dimensional space; if close one eye – lack depth perception; cant judge distance  Monkey b virus – if humans get it, dissolves the brain from inside out  4 terms to describe when primates are active  Nocturnal – active at night  Diurnal – active during day; most primates are diurnal  Crepuscular – active at dawn and dusk  Cathemeral – active any time of day or night, depends on food availability  Primate taxonomy is divided into 2 subgroups – stepsirhini and haplorhini  Combo of characteristics that define strensirhine o Lower teeth form tooth comb; teeth are fused; comb themselves using teeth o Moist rhinarium – have wet nose; interact with environment with sense of smell – wet nose allows to trap the chemicals that it needs to identify food o Unfused mandibular and frontal symphases – forehead is a frontal bone, in strepr its made up of two halves of bone that form together, in the middle there is a line showing where the two halves haven’t completely fused; in humans cant see the line; mandibular symphases – jaw, composed of two halfs that meet at the middle, also have a line that’s unfused o Tapetum lucidum - at the back of their eyes have device that reflects light and allows them to amplify existing light so they can see in the dark o Postorbitor bar – there is no bone at the back of the eye  There are two subgroups within stresirhiene lemurodea and lorisoidea  Lemuroidea (lemurs) are found in Madagascar(afria)  The are arboreal (in the tree) quadrupeds (on four limbs); some are terrestrial (come to the ground)  Many lemurs exhibit female dominance, in the social settings females take priority  Wider distribution  Called lorises and galagos  Haplorines have o dry nose o Retinal fovea – we have special adaptation in our eyes to allow us to see with high visual acuity across the color spectrum; see more colour than stepsirhines o Postorbital closure – the back of the eye is enclosed in bone o No line on the mandibular and on the frontal sympases  3 taxonomic groups o Tarsiers; platyrhini, ratarhini  Tarsiiformers – one genus (specie) tarsius  Found in southeast asia  Small body size  Large eyes – norturnal  Lower legs are fused together – can jump without damaging the lower limbs  Only eat meat (birds, lizards..); can catch insects by listening and smelling them, don’t have to use sight  Dogs, cats, stapsohines, many platorhines don’t have the facial muscles that allow them to mane facial expressions like in humans  Higher primates like catorhines, like chimapnzees can many of the facial expressions  Area is two dimensions; volume is three dimensions; change at diff rates – as an organism gets bigger its volume will increase at much faster rate than its area  Double in size doesn’t double in mass  Small animals have small core, big animals have large core and lots of skin  Small animals lose a lot of energy by expelling heat from their bodies; little animals have to eat high quality food in small packages  Large animals can eat a lot of bad food as long as its high volume  Size and mass has enormous consequence for the lifestyle of primates  Strapsirhines and many polatyrhines don’t have the facial muscles to make the facial features that humans do  Higher primates (like catarhines, like chimpanzees) can make many of the same facial expressions as humans  Large primates are not scaled version of small primates  Length x width is 2 dimensions, volume is 3 dimensions (length, width, depth)  As an organism gets bigger, the volume inc at much higher rate that its area  Double in mass -> 8 times heavier; if animal is 2 times the size – will weight 8 times as much  Small animals lose a lot of energy by expelling heat from their bodies  Small animals need to come with ways to eat without starving; it takes energy to process the food so the food has to be high quality and contain a lot of energy  Little animals have to eat high quality small food packages; large animals can eat a lot of bad food  Size and mass has an enormous consequence for the primates  Where do we find primates?  Primary forests – those that hadn’t been converted by natural processes like fire, tornadoes, hurricanes or by human processes – andopegenic factors; forests where trees, grew, matured died  Secondary forest – forest that regrows after disturbance  Ecological niche – where animal lives, what eats where it goes, what eats it; combo of all the interaction that an animal does with the environment  Primates exist in variety of layers in the forest  Most of the primates are in the canopy  Some trees grow above the canony; some primates are there but they are exposed to the predators  Bottom up processes – plants are evolving defences against primates eating their parts – ie poisoing  Top down processes – predators are eating the primates  Primates evolved vocalizations for diff predators; diff depending on the species and where they are – on the ground or in the air  It is rare that the organisms help each other; one animal pollinates the flowers by eating their nutritious substance  Primates have complex social lives  If the chimpanzee has meat – brings up the social status; will use meat as sexual currency; will mate and then give meat as a pay  Many primates exhibit homosexuality  Baboon can use the baby to protect himself from other baboons if threatened  Some primates can recognize kin – recognize their brother, sister ect st  Grooming – females groom male chimpanzee; there is ranking, 1 ranking females grooms from the front  Sometimes primates will groom each other to release the tension after they fought  Many animals have dominance hieracrchies – in certain social or ecological settings certain individuals outpower others; higher ranking individuals won more fights than they lost, can get to the top through social relationships (ie playing with babies of higher ranking females) -> used affiliation to receive dominance  Ways to describe social organizations  Residence group composition – sorting by age and sex  Mating system – who mates with who  Forging coherence – who forage (feed) with who  2 patters of residence group composition  Female philopatry (most common)- females stay at the birthplace and male emigrate when reaches sexual maturity  Male philopatry – females leave  Why do primates live in groups?  advantages – can detect predators; improve access to food (defend it from others)..  dissadvanteages – get predators attention (make more noise); inc travel time to get food; if one gets sick – transmit to others  abola in gorillas – human disease that transmitted to gorillas; killed many gorillas  agriculture – people cut down trees in the forect and grow food  forest fragmentation – animals don’t go through places where trees were cut -> become isolated  people hunt primnates to sell Lecture 4  Will talk about extinct primates  In the end of the lecture will understand the general morphological feature associated with the evolution of primates  Understand the phylogenetic questions that have primate evolution  Understand what homonym is  Will focus on three morphological features – o Bipiedalism – locomoting using two limbs; humans – upright bipidealism o Expansion in brain size o Changes in dental/ cranial features – teeth  The earth is constantly changing and will change  Will do a chronological approach – will go by time series by what geologists call epics  Epics – time frames define by geologic sequences;  Maya – stands for millions of years ago  We are on the decrease in temperature in the last 60 million of years  As temperatures decrease ice masses expand, oceans shrink, air becomes drier  Don’t need to know the dates but will need to know the sequence of epics relative to each other and general understanding of each epic Paleacine  Right through the heart of western Canada there was a giant ocean -> this is why find a lot of oil in the area – the oil is the little creatures in the ocean that died and fallen down to the ocean floor and compressed under extreme heat  South America is separate land mass, modern Europe is under water; there are himalaian mountains bc india was still floating the in the ocean  The place was very hot and humid; arctica was covered in forest  Will focus on a group of mammals that lived at that time- plesiodapiformes  Similar to squirrels; nocturnal (large eye orbits) compared to their brains  Relied on smell; figure out diet by comparing their teeth to the other animals for which we do know diet -> infer that eat the same thing; ate insects and seeds  When they were first discovered -> thought that they were the earliest kinds of primates  Later on – decided that they were not primates  Decided tat were not primates bc -> lack postorbital bar (their eyes lie in the scull surrounded by soft tissue – no bone behind); they had claws instead of nails (nails sit in the soft tissue; claws are attached to bone by ligament); the eyes were placed on the side of the brain rather than being at the front; had huge gap btw front teeth and the rest of the teeth -> taken together all the traits are primitive – problem is that this is phenetic approach – focusing on only a few characters; this is not the best way to define evolutionary relationships – the best way is to use cladistics approach  Its better to use cladistics approach; use as many traits as you can; use outgroup as polarity character source (?)  based on cladistics – plesiadapids are primates; primates predated plesiadapids Eocene  Africa is inconnected to other continents; india and south america is also still island continents  parts of Europe are under water  at first there was a strong warming trend; after the peak the temp started to decr  during this time see definitive primates – 2 families  supported by all research – cladistics; phalogenetic and phonetic  a had larger bodies than o  a lived in the trees  there are some taxa that appeared to be specialized leapers  leaves are good source of energy; hard to digest  o and modern tarsier looked very similar  just bc the two taxa look alike doesn’t mean that the share recent common ancestor; they share similar selective pressures oligocene  central America meets with north America and blocks ocean current;  during this time see haplorine-like monkeys  para and prop are from the old world are from the old world – Eurasia, Africa, asia  protyr are from the new world – south America  the last time that saw primates was during Paleocene then no primates during entire ? in north, centra or south America  toward the end Oligocene all of the sudden monkeys appear in south America  could’ve rafted from Africa to south America on the trees Miocene  Africa bumps into aeurasia; india joined the rest of the land – himalaian mountains  ** there are series of openings and closings of the land masses connecting northern Europe to eurasia and Africa  connections btw Africa and asia open and close at various times  begin to see the evolution of apes  Oligocene is about monkes; Miocene about apes (monkes are still there)  apes had larger body mass than monkeys, larger cranial capacity -> movement toward being more human like and less monkey like  ** we did not evolve from monkeys and apes **  what we evolved from was a common ancestor to monkeys and apes  early mioccene – confined to Africa bc couldn’t get out of it; oceans and seas prevented migration to other places  mid – there was change in the land mass – slow migration to diff parts of the world (not America)  during this time begin to see creatures diff than earlier apes – dryopithecus  after that time Africa became isolated again; toward the end of myocine the weather was becoming drier and colder and forests were shrinking  apes like forest life; it became more difficult for apes to disperse Pliocene  during Pliocene continue to see global cooling  anything above the line indicates warming stages – a lot of humimdity in the air, reduction of ice, expansion of forest  can also see glips on the opposite side – cool periods; masses of ice that covered large parts of land; would’ve reduced ocean coverage  period diff than anything primate had to deal with during the entire evolution  see the evolution of two primate groups – fossils cercopithinaen (monkeys of Africa) and fossil colobinae (leaf feeding monkeys found in Africa and asia)  phylognenetic relationship is unresolved bc the soft tissues don’t get fossilized  begin to see creatures (transitional forms) – creatures that have morphological traits that see in apes and begin to evolve traits that see in humans  humans are bipedal; some of the transitional forms started to experiment with bipedalism  see changes in the shape and size of the canines (teeth); started to become more round rather that pointy  don’t see as much sexual dimorphism – males and females are becoming more similar in shape  larger brain size  hominim – taxonomic designation  as go down getting rid of class of species (?); holybtidae – the most primitive of the apes that are alive today; ponginae – orangutans (the next most primitive of the living apes); then getting rid of the gorillas  homini – list of genus that are hominins; chimpanzees are included in the list; they are the creatures to which we have the closest shared ancestry  hominins don’t have one trait that characterizes them; its about mosaic evolution; the changes didn’t happen all at once but they are associated with being bipedal; inc brain size; maybe intelligence (don’t associate large brain with intelligence; whales have large brain)  absolute – big; relative – big relative to something else  skeleton of human and gorilla  will focus on 4 main areas  foraman magnum – hole through the base of the scull through which spinal cord passes  the position is more to the middle in bipeds (humans) and more to the back in quadrupeds  in humans heads are balanced on the necks  the foremen magnum – kea indicator of the position of the body  diff in the size and shape of the pelvis  when humans stand our bones angle in; at the knee it turns and does straight down; we have valgus knee; gorilla’s knees are shaped diff  gorillas swing their legs when then walk; they cant do hill, toe, push like humans  there is also diff in the location of halus or big toe (hallux?)  in gorillas big toe is way back; their feet and their hands look alike  gorillas walk on their knuckles on their hands  pelvis is diff in humans and chimpanzees; in chimpanzees they are long and narrow; the pelvis of early himonim (astralopi..); astrapi pelvis looks more like humans than chimp’s  from the hip down asutrapi look more like humans; like chimpanzees from waist up  brain size stayed stable when homonins just evolved (similar to chimps)  around 2 million years ago begin to see the expansion  there has been massive selection for expansion of cranial capacity  our brains cant expand any more bc the human head passes through the birth canal of females; maybe we would have incr folding to inc surface area  all the earliest fossil hominims come from Africa  the transitional forms are suggested by the discovers to be hominims and many are suggested to be earliest common ancestor of all humans -> not clear if true  sahelan tch found in chad; not from the east Africa (? valley) where most fossils come from  fossil – organic material that has been turned into stone  looks like ape; suggested that its the common ancestor for all living primates (controversial)  orroron tugen; creature in transition  found the thy bone; where it meets the hip tells us how the creature moved  moved bipedally but the forelimb bones indicate that it was still adept climber (in the trees)  discovery of two new species within the new genus arpithecus -> important  species – ramidus and kadabba  have thin enamel (humans have thick enamel)  video  Kenyan platyops  some argued that its part of unique genous – called kynyanthirpus  most anthropologists don’t agree with this  its probably the regional variant of astrolapithesis (?)- will talk about it next week Lecture 5  will talk about where we come from – what is the evolutionary history of our species  we are the only representative of our genous homo; all others are extinct  will gain general understanding of the morphological traits for some of the kea homonyms  will look what it means to be humans  will look how we got from small geographic region in the world to every continent on the planet  Australopithecus – homonym  this is a taxa that had enough morphological features of dentition of the skull, the shape of the bodies to group them into a group called homonyms but they are placed in a separate gene called australopicathecus (means souther ape man)  the first description in scientific literature of one of these creatures was made by the south African medical doctors – claimed that this creature evolved in south Africa  before people believed that humans evolved in England  anamensis – oldest and sediba – most recent  discovered in Kenya  it shows transitional characteristics; some parts appear to be human like and some parts ape like  in apes the tooth row is parallel; humans have parabolic rows  from waist up the creature looked like an ape from waist had similarities to humans  tibia is similar to bipeds (walk on two feet)  the first of the changes was in the hips and the lower limbs, wasn’t the brain  first thing that’s part of human adaptive complex is the movement towards bipedality  aust afarensis  the song “lucy” was playing in the background; bc the specimen was so complete compared to anything else that was found – named it lucy  lucy is one specimen; since then found a whole group of afarensis that died and fossilized at the same place  found through parts of east Africa  lived for over million years  have complex morphology – scull retained primitive characters  they have crests – little buildup of bone at the back of the scull  valgus knee – bipedality like in humans  sexually dimorphic – females and males differ on some property  males have larger canines than females  this is the most sexually dimorphic species ever in existence – very large male and very small female  some say that there were two species – one large and one small  two homonins walked across ash from the vocano; the ash was fossilized and turned into stone  can see footprints of homonins walking bipedally across the ash  the foot is similar to the foot of a biped  by looking at the compression know that the pattern of walking was heel, roll, toe, push -> apes cant do that  these homonins were walking side by side  recent discovery – specimen of a afarensis; called selam  found hyoid bone – bone that anchors the voice box; the shape of the bone can tell us if it was primitive or derived; her bone didn’t look like human’s – more similar to an ape  the shape of the scapula tells us how they used the upper – she was a very capable tree climber  she had naturally curved fingers – good thing to to have for climbing trees – ape like condition  not looking at specimen from south Africa, not east  where first austrolopitthecus emerged (?); was first called a. africanus  africanus is diff from afferensis – the brow ridge is not as extreme; forehead is more vertical; the scull is rounded; little sagittal crest  there were beginning to be diff in dentition; less primitive and more derived  post cranium, the bones beneath the scull – africanus is similar to aferensis  were beginning to see movement from ape like traits to more human like traits; there is no progression in evolution; no end result  a aethiopicus ; the scull was called the black stone?  tannin – chemicals produced by plants; they darken things  zygomatics – cheek bones  the further the cheekbones go the larger the chewing muscle; had very large chewing muscles; had very large teeth  in some way its like evolution reversed the course; afersis showed trends towards human like charscteristics; africanis even more so; aethiopicus is very similar to ape  large cheek bones; deep jaw, massive brow ridges, huge teeth; remarkable biting force  very similar to a ethiopicus  when a boisei was on the ground, also found members of genous homo, there was a possibility that they were sympatric – two species exist in the same geographic region at the same time  robustus  large brow ridges; huge saggital crest; huge cheek bones  teeth at the front were much smaller than the teeth at the back of the mouth (posterior)  the enamel was very thick; apes have thin enamel relative to humans and robustus  having think enamel is human like trait  was argued that should taxonomically separate the specimen into two groups  gracile – smaller bones, thinner teeth  the shape of the brain of the sediba was similar to ours; brain wasn’t large, smaller than in other early species of early representatives of our genous homo  hand – shows that they were very good tree climbers and had precision grip – when can hold something strongly and firmly without it falling out of your hands  pelvic area indicates bipedality – unique form of bipedality  the earliest evidence for our genous homo comes from Africa  first secies representative is in the species habilis  when the reserchers dug out homo habilis they also found astrolapithesis  they also found ancient tools; the first tools  before thought that only humans made and used tools  researchers deduced that the creatures that used the tools mustve been in our genous  they made taxonomic designation based on the deductive reasoning, only humans use tools, and the presence of tools in the same strata as the fossils  now we know that many species use tools  habilis – brain size is larger than in astralopithesis  cranial and postcranial skeleton is like astralopithecines  some people suggest that they are just astrolapithesis but it doesn’t look like junk taxon (if people dug out fossil homonym with the tools – would just say homo habilis; now people don’t believe that)  some researchers say that its real taxon than may have two species; more primitive homohabilis and more derived h rudolfensils  homo rudolfensis  there are slight variations in the scull, in the brow ridge, size of the brain  there is debate whether we share a more recent common ancestor with h hanilis or h rudolfensis  erectus – confident that in the genous homo  the first representative of our genus found outside of Africa  it evolved first in Africa then moved to asia and southeast asia  they controlled and used fire  expansion of the brain size; the teeth and jaw start to look more like human’s; large brow ridges  some argue that there are actually two species – the earlier ones that found in Africa called home ergaster; more derived, recent ones – in china, south east asia called homo erectus  diff btw ergaster and erectus -> in erectus the bones are thinner and doesn’t have obvious supraorbital foramen (supra – above; foramen – hole) – hole above the eye lids??  the skeleton is called turcana boy; called turcana bc found in turcana and boy is bc based on the size and shape of the bones  when died was about 7-16 years old  cranial capacity – almost 1000 cubic cm – twice the size of chimpanzee  h heidelber. had smaller, more human like dentition (end of recording) Lecture 5  will ask a question whether or not there is biological and evolutionary significance to race concepts in humans  what is forensic anthropology and what they do  when we describe differentiated populations we refer to them as subspecies  there are many definitions for species  any specie that exhibits geographic variation amongst populations may represent subspecies  there are misconceptions about the application of race concept to human beings  going back 5 generations – most people not sure where they are from; the only thing we know is that we are from Africa  humans are highly homogenous (same) there are no reproductively isolated human populations on the planet  visual bundles – broad, visualized descriptors of what we think human races look like  white girl and black guy; actually the opposite race, makeup was put on them  skin colour is an adaptation to the exposure of human body to the ultraviolet radiation (the sun’s rays)  the sun’s rays are the potential mutagens  skin colour is the skin trying to protect dna  inside our bodies we have melonin cells; produce chemicals that operate that operate like natural uv (?)  the size, density and the location of the melanocytes determine the skin color  everyone have these cells except albines  skin colour is an adoptive response to high levels of ultraviolet radiation on the equator regions in the world - the areas in which people have a large number of melanocytes  black bundle was associated with medium to dark skin but there is a lot of variation in Africa  aclinal distribution – related to geography, not ethnicity or culture; in this case its related to geographic variations in sunlight; there is no black race; there are people whose ethnicity and genetic underpinnings evolved in high ultraviolet light regions  we need sunlight – vitamin d; we synthesize vitamin d in the skin by exposure to ultraviolet radiation; the melanocytes protect us from harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation and also interact with that radiation to produce an essential nutrient that we need to survive  skin colour has nothing to do with subspecies its just an adaptation to uv light  we have no means of defining a biological race in humans; there are no subspecies; there is only one species – honosapients  you cant define subspecies by skin colour, hair texture etc  people are unfamiliar with the procsees that makes us variable; we don’t understand human variation  we take in racial discrimination ideas as part of stereotypical education that we get  we don’t understand science – says that there is one species and no subspecies  medical anthropology is looking at all of the cultural, biological, ethnic and ethnic understandings of disease and how we treat disease  medical anth looking at health issues focuses on two things:  1. the effects of infectious disease; in developed countries have antibiotics  the larger the areas – the more hiv; in Africa – a lot but small in developed countries  2. chronic disease – wear and tear; our bodies naturally breaking down  wear and tear is more excessive in aging populations and since people live longer in developed countries – have more wear and tear  we are facing global crisis in terms of nutrition – lack of nutrition  the darker the red the more malnutrition (developing countries)  micronutrients are needed by the brain to develop and maintain connections; these connections are laid out as children; can result in reduced cog functions for the entire lifespan of the organism  forensic anthropology is looking at bones; taking skeletal biology and putting it in applied, legal setting  its the most applied aspect of evolutionary anthorp; taking osteology and applying it in the (forensic) legal setting  when given skeletal remains from the crime scene – assess age, sex, stature, trauma and pathology -> those will vary bc human populations vary  the younger the person is the easier it is to assess age; as we grow our bones are still growing along with us and in some cases they are turning into bone; at some point it stops and it becomes difficult to assess age  look at how the bones are put together and the patterns; they assess tables, experiment and study it – will give them age  when the baby is born much of its bone structure is still not fully made up of strong bone; not until age of 17 the person have adult bone structure; cartilage is replaced with bone  by the time the person is 25 we cant use basic bone biology to age the skeleton  assess sex by looking at the pelvis; females give birth to offspring -> their pelvis is shaped diff than that of males (larger and rounder); pubis synthesis in females has softer, bony structure bc its part of a birth process that pelvis region changes to allow the passage of the head through birth canal  trauma – what happened to damage the bones; was there a lesion to some pathology or bone defect  important to know when the trauma happened premortem – before death (may give us individual identification, doesn’t help us to determine cause of death); peri mortem (may be associated with what caused the death; post mortem – something happened to disturb the bones (the bones were damaged)- may confuse the ant into determining cause and individual identification  can assess pathology by looking at sections of the bone; many diseases alter the bone structure (ie reduce bone density) Archeology Lecture 1  archeologists try to reconstruct culture over millions of years and how it developed into what we see today  and their special relationships - the relationships within the site across the landscape  we are using the material record as opposed to other sources of data  1 topic - how archeology relate to history, science etc nd  2 topic - archeological record - the total of all the material that has been left by people  almost everything we do leaves indirect traces; ie organic things get rot; you are left with fragments of materials  field work - the process of finding sites; dating the materials  3r topic - analysis and interpretation; what are the diff types of data - ie artifacts, ecofacts and sites  ecofacts - biological remains that haven’t been impacted by people but were used by people  first three topics - how do archeologists know what they know; last three topics - what have we learned about human past  earliest traces of human behavior (will look at the tools people made; how elaborate they were etc)  origins of modern humans; modern humans evolved in Africa and expanded throughout the world  then will look at how did the modern people who were hunter gatherers adopt agriculture -> led rise in populations relationship of archeology with other disciplines  in arheology dealing with people from many other disciplines  antho - trying to understand people in the past  cultural anthopologists talk to modern people to understand how culture works  archeologists also deal with biological anthopologists  look at the stable isotopes to figure out the diet of people  relationship with social anthopologists is even closer; a lot of interaction btw the two  one of the things that archeologists have the hardest time reconstructing are the rituals; religion etc  linguistic antho - people from Greenland and Alaska live very far away from each other but they understand each other somewhat ->indicates a common origin of these people  the main diff btw the arch and history is that history is based mainly on written documents; arch is based on material culture other than written documents  history can say things that are more specific; can get info from someone’s diary which is specific  since its based on written records it is limited - the earliest writing is around 5000 years old; in some regions even later  before that the only way to get access to early is by talking to elders and through material record  the writing was controlled and done by most powerful people - will know what the king was doing but not the ordinary people  historical archeology - the discipline half way btw; trying to get beyond historical records of what the authors didn’t write down  prehistoric - before the written record  classical arch - midway btw the history and prehist arch; arch dealing roman empire, Greece  sometimes arch come up with hypothesis and then test it  archeologists deal with scientists  geology - much of the archeological records deal with stone tools; geologists help with figuring out what the stones are and where they come from  biology - a lot of what is being dug out are the animal remains ;most plants release pollen (?)  physics and chemistry - radiocardon dating done by chemists  when comparing arch to hard sciences is that arch deals with people  people have particular personalities, motivations  there is a lot of controversy in arch bc can interpret the materials in diff ways  pottery along with stone tools - survive in archeological record; pottery is stone  in tut will classify pots into groups  can classify according to shape; function; technology; surface decoration-> tut  if the decoration is the same than maybe only a few people were making them  can also use them for dating; fashion changes with time lecture 2  archeological record - the sum total of all physical remains from all past activities across the world  any bone on the archeological site left behind by hunting activity is part of archeological record  it refers to the spatial aspects of the objects (context) as well as the objects themselves  natural catastrophes destroy or preserve (volcano) the archeological sites st nd  will talk about three aspects of archeological record - 1 formation processes 2 field work (how come to understand the archeological record) 3 dating techniques  archeologists cant observe the ancient archeological behavior they are interested in; we can look at the contemporary materials that are here today even though activities happened thousands of years ago  when making a stone tool -> the flakes will fall on the ground and will preserve; the ritual - no archeological record  archeologists fantasized about Pompeii - the idea that everything is beautifully preserved, called the pompeii premise; sometimes over interpret the data bc want to say something interesting about the people  the city of Pompeii was covered with ash and the site was preserved  the pomepii premise is the fantasy of how much you can find in archeological record; in Pompeii was able to find a lot  artifact - it can be anything from multicomponent like a car to something like a stone flake  ecofact - natural obj that is used by people which often have been effected; refers mainly to plant remains or animal remains  feature - usually defined as something that archeologists couldn’t remove from the site; you have to destroy it to understand; cant take the whole house to the lab - have to excavate; it is nonportable but made by people  midden - where people throw garbage out; in middens usually get a lot of artifacts and ecofacts together  the archeological enterprise is to find the 4 categories of ‘stuff’ and putting them together spatially to understand past people’s activities  why did the particular artifact that we find, why did it make into arch record  at each stage a diff type of activity occurred and a diff set of artifacts occur  acquisition - where you first acquire or find the material; Ie finding the stone for the stone tool; get a limited range of poor quality materials  manufacture - modifying the raw material into the tool; ie when making the stone tool chipping the small flakes off the stone and finishing the spear point
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