Study Guides (238,166)
Canada (114,968)
Anthropology (242)
ANT100Y1 (97)
all (9)

final exam notes

37 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George

September 13, 2012 Anthropology Categories: Evolutionary: Reported what people looked like, physical characteristics All the things that influence our lifestyle, morphology, ecology, and behavior of human and non-human primates Natural selection, mutants, genetic drift, gene flow E.g. blobfish, octopus, seahorse, chameleon Archaeology: Reported intellectual characteristics, objects they have used Linguistic and Semiotics: Reported dialect and languages spoken Social and Cultural: Reported how they behaved and acted Primatology -Scientific study of non-human primates -primate anatomy, field studies of wild animals, primate psychology, etc -seek to conserve primates in vanishing tropical ecosystems -major theme in movies, tv, videos, etc. Paleoanthropology Multidisciplinary study of: -Biological evolution of humans and non-human primates -advent of and changes in human cultural activities -evolutionary history of behavior in human and non- human primates Human Variation -Spatial and temporal variations in human features -For example, geographic and climatic variations in body size, skin and eye color Medical Anthropology -new branch -disease and cures Forensic Anthropology -forensic science Semiotics -study of signs and symbols and their use of interpretation -can represent various things Communication, representation, identity Social Cultural Anthropology, Ethnography -Interested in human culture and they way they act -cultural activities and opinions, diverse ways people live around the world -ethnography, method of studying or research itself Kinship&Gender- most basic way humans have organized themselves as - rules of marriage, where to live Politics and Economics- how communities make a living and rule their society Religion, Myth and Ritual- how people approach the way of living through a system of belief Colonization and Globalization- interconnectedness of political and economical powers Evolutionary Anthropology 1) Historical development of biological science 2) Diversity of life and natural processes produced this diversity 3) Fundamental biological and evolutionary concepts 4) How anthropologists answer the questions -more about life, its about geology and changing environment (wind, water, sand, climate) What is anthropology? -application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of morphology, ecology, and behavior of human and non human primates Primatology -scientific study of non human primates primate anatomy field studies of wild animals, primate psychology -primatologists seek to conserve primates Paleoanthropology -Biological evolution of humans and non-human primates -advent of and changes in human cultural activities -evolutionary history of behavior in human and non-human primates Human Variation -spatial and temporal variations in human features -for example, geographic and climates Medical Anthro -how social, enviro, and biological factors influence health and illnesses of individuals at the community, regional, national, and global levels Forensic Anthro -focuses only on skeletal remains of humans Major Qs about humans and our biology -how does evolution work and how does it apply to us -what are biological characteristics of our species -what is physical record of our evolution (paleoanthro) How they conduct research Scientific method: The steps -state the problem, gather info, form hypo, test hypo, record n analyze data, state conclusion and repeat the work 4 problems limites development of theory of evolution 1. lack of knowledge on age and earth 2. religious concept of fixity of species 3. lack of scientific method 4. religious notion of separate creation for humans and animals Age of Earth -1650, earth created on afternoon of October 23, 4004 BC -accepted because church pronouncements held as secular and religious law Fixity of Species -by 8 century, scientists say living things created in present form -species, especially human species, were unchanging Lack of Scientific Method -many ideas and concepts based on singular observations or fanciful accounts of other travelers Ewaipanoma, modern-day Guyana. Trying to find gold but found humans who have mouths on their soldiers and face in the stomach. Sir Walter Raleigh 1595 Separate Creation for humans and animals -religious doctrine that god created humans separate from and over animals -humand made in god’s image, so more divinity than animals -processed that work on animals Carolus Linnaeus ( Karl von Linne, 1707-1778) 1 comprehensive classification system for living things -each living thing named separate species -on basis of physical resemblances, species grouped into broader categories called genera or genus Binomial Nomenclature -first letter of genus is capitalized, like so: homo species designations always lower case, like so : sapiens Off-set text: underline if hand-writing (homo sapiens) -he was not an evolutionist, a devout Christian -cataloguing god’s good work Scala Naturae/nature’s ladder Georges-louis Leclerc, comte de buffon (1707-1788) -Earth’s history > 6000 years ( 75000 years) -major issue with contemporary religious authorities -founded biogeography: despite similar environments, different regions have distinct pants and animals Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) -Inheritance of Acquired characteristics ‘vital forces’ within creatures help them to adapt to environment -acquired traits: developed through use or disuse, passed on to future generations -among first to formulate method for organization of new species through use or ---- -disuse of certain characteristics of organism Charles Darwin (1809-1882) -naturalist on HMS BEAGLE, scientific expedition to pacific coast of south America (almost didn’t get the job because captain didn’t like his nose) -observed incredible variety of living and especially fossilized creatures Conclusion: NO fixity of species and notion on short, catastrophic geological history for earth must be incorrect Variation important in Evolution Physical variety in any population of organisms -if variety provides advantage to certain individuals, then they may produce more offspring -these offspring inherit beneficial variation, so they produce more offspring; variation norm of population -population may change, perhaps completely new and different species How does adaptive change occur? -key came from essay on the principle of populations by economist Thomas Malthus -many born than can possible survive -darwin: individuals in a species adapt to environment and long term adaption means evolutionary shift in entire population is response to environmental change Natural Selection -all extant and extinct species share a common ancestry -species evolve by natural selection -natural selection: a process in nature resulting in survival and perpetuation of only those forms of lead having certain favorable characteristics that enable them to adapt best their environment Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) Wallace writes Darwin from Malaysia, describing certain aspects theory of natural selection that Darwin had been researching for 20 years Wallace’s short sketch is far from massive body of evidence Darwin had collected, but its core ideas were similar On the Origin of Species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life (1859) Three Postulates of Darwinian Evolution 1. Struggle for existence: ability of population to expand is infinite, but environment finite 2. Variation in fitness: Organisms vary, some indivualds possess traits enabling them to survive and reproduce more successfully than others in same environment 3. Inheritance of variation: advantageous traits inherited by offspring becoming more common in succeeding generations. Traits that confer advantages in survival and reproduction retained in population; disadvantageous traits disappear Darwin’s other contributions -darwin avoided implications of general progress or directionality -later works apply evolution to humans and discuss other aspects of trait variation -sexual selection: certain evolutionary traits can be explained by intraspecific Why doesn’t evolution result in general increase of fitness of life to external world? -reason: environments always changing -relative to organisms, environments usually getting worse -natural selection concerned with keeping up, but very species eventually becomes extinct -design limitations in biology Survival of the Fittest Herbert Spencer not Charles Darwin although at Wallace’s urging. Darwin did use it in later editions of his book -Spencer proclaimed wrongly that a struggle for existence in human society leads, in effect, to its evolution -he argues against policies, such as charity that might interfere with process of producing fit individuals Darwinian Evolution and Inheritance -Major weakness: no explanation on how characteristics inherited Gregor Mendel -priest, Czech republic -experimented with pea-plants Mendel’s Methods 1.Inbred: true-breeding lines 2. hybrids: quantify traits 3. observable traits: flower color, seed color 4. plants small easy to grow in large numbers; short generation time for several crosses per growing season 5. self-fertilizing, but can do cross fertilizations Mendel’s Conclusions -Each individual plant carry 2 copies of ‘factor’ determines trait -if plants ‘breed true’ then identical factors; otherwise, one will mask other trait -published (1866) findings raised little interest Mendelian Traits -cleft chin, cheek dimples Non-mendelian traits -eye color, hair color, morton’s toe, tongue rolling What really happened? -Mendel wasn’t really sure -no understanding of genetics at that time -his work forgotten until rediscovery in early 1900’s Understand microevolution: Genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution Population genetics Natural Selection Adaption Understand macroevolution Speciation How to read a cladogram How evolution works on a grand scale The modern synthesis The Modern Synthesis of Evolution -Focuses on how evolution works at levels of phenotypes, genes, and populations -Microevolution -Macroevolution -DNA-RNA-PROTEIN Somatic cells:most cells in body except sex cells Gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum egg) Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called organelles Nucleus: contains hereditary material, known as chromosomes Chromosomes -Paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genest that transmit from generation to generation DNA _ deoxyribonucleic acid- nucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes for the synthesis of proteins -four bases : adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cystosine (C) & Thymine (T) RNA(ribonucleic acid) molecules: 1) dictates synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body 2) regulate expression of other genes 3) work with structures in cell (ribosomes) that are critical for manfucature for proteins 4) Transport amino acids to ribosomes for the creations of proteins Proteins -linear sequences of amino acis, building blocks of cells -each protein has specific function determined by blueprint stored in DNA -catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which contains protein(digestion); and many more Transciption -Synthesis of single strand of ribonucleic acid(mRNA: messenger RNA) at unwound section of DNA with one of DNA strands serving as template -Result: genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to RNA -mRNA carries information into cytoplasm, then protein synthesis occurs via translation Codons -Genetic information encoded in sequence of three nucleotides termed codons -four nucleotides of RNA are: adenine(A), guanine(G), cytosine, and uracil(U), which replaces thymine(T) in DNA template “thus, a nucleotide sequence of AATTGC on one side of the DNA results in a corresponding mRNA sequence of UUAACG Translation tRNA (transfer RNA) is information adapter molecule Direct interface between amindo-acid sequence of protein & information in mRNA Therefore it decodes information in mRNA Acceptor system is site where specific amino acid is attached. Anticodon reads information in a mRNA sequence by base pairing Genetics & Heredity Gene: chemical unit of heredity Phenotype: observable physical appearance of organism; may or may not reflect genotype or total genetic constitution Genotype: the total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism Alleles: one member of a pair of genes Genetics & Heredity Homozygous: possessing two identical gene or alleles in corresponding locations on a pair of chromosomes. E.g.: YY or yy Heterozygous: possessing differing genes or alleles in corresponding locations on a pair of chromosomes. Genetic & Heridity Dominant alleles: allele of gene pair that is always phenotypically expressed in heterozygous form. For example: Y always expressed phenotypically when paired with y (Yy) Recessive Alleles: allele phenotypically suppressed in heterozygous form and expressed only in homozygous form. For example: y only expressed phenotypically when paired with y (yy) e.g., mandibular tori Mutatation: -error change in the genetic code (uv radiation cancer) -randomly occurring process -somatic cell mutation vs germ cell mutations in tern of relevance to evolutionary anthro -can be harmful, neutral or beneficial -result through: error, exposure to radiation, exposure to mutagens or exposure to viruses Population Genetics: Genetic Drift Random changes in gene pool over time Three important outcames 1. Reduces within population growth variation 2. More likely to effect small population 3. Increases between population genetic variation Population Genetics: Gene Flow -movement of genes between populations -two important outcomes: 1. initially, increases within population genetic variation 2. eventually increases within population genetic variation Natural Selection -Any consistent difference in fitness among phenotypically different biological entities -Deterministic process involving differtial reproductive success -Acts only on existing variation -The Catch: biological evolution can occur without natural selection, and vice versa(natural selection can occur without biological evolution). 3 Modes of Selection Directional Selection: process favouring either higher or lower values of character, thereby promoting variation Stablizing Selection: average phenotype is fittest. Reduces variation Disruptive Selection: both extremes of trait are favoured. Increases variation Adaption Process and feature Process: Change in organism enabling it to better reproduce and survive in environment Feature: Characteristic that performs function of utility to organism possessing it Cool Adaptions: Parasites Parasitic wasps lay eggs inside host, such as caterpillar Eggs change into larvae, with gorge on various fluids and tissues; but don’t kill host In time, larvae hatch from host Macroevolution Large-scale changes at or above the species level Extends over geologic era Associated with research on the formation of new taxonomic groups Speciation Evolutionary process involving the formation of new species About 12 modern species definitions. We focus on biological species concept and phylogenetic species concept Controversial and interesting Adaptive or non-adaptive process Are intermediate forms needed in speciation Modern Evolutionary Synthesis A modern theory of evolutionary processes that emphasizes the combined action of the four mechanisms of change: 1. random mutation 2. natural selection 3. genetic drift 4. gene flow Cladistics System of biological taxonomy based on quantative analysis of comparative data that is used to reconstruct (assumed) phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of groups and organisms Three Major Assumptions: 1. There are changes in characteristics within lineages over time 2. All organisms descended from common ancestor 3. When a lineage splits, it divides Cladogram A branching diagram used to illustrate phylogenetic relationships Reading a Cladogram Each internal node represents a recent common ancestor Within a cladogram may be a number of clades Clade: A group of organisms that contains an ancestral taxon and all of its descendants Researchers are specifically interested in treetopology Treetopology: the branching patterns of lines connection nodes and organisms Focus on internal branching matters Misconceptions about Cladograms 1. Evolution produces patterns of relationships among organisms that are like a tree and not like a ladder 2. Although cladograms are often organized from top to bottom, don’t assume that those taxa on the top are more advanced than those taxa on the bottom 3. Avoid reading across the terminal nodes Readings Chapter 1 Aristotle and Zhuangzi -ar observed the anatomy of various aquatic mammals -zh suggested that living things had the power to transform and adapt to environment Historical Contributors Carl Linnaeus- Swedish physician and botanist -classifying plants and animals, father of modern taxonomy -taxonomic system and binomial nomenclature ( name plants using latin because it is unchanging) George-Louis Leclerc- French aristocrat, mathematician and naturalist -natural history and biogeography Terms Chapter 1 Quantitative data: info measurable or quantifiable on a numeric scale, a primate species body mass Qualitative data: info based on observations that cannot be reduced to numerical expression Botanist: a scientist who studies plants Classify: the scientific method of placing an organism in a sytem based on order by classes or categories -taxonomy: theory and practice of describing, naming and classifying extant and extinct organisms binomial nomenclature: sci. method for assigning names to species and genera genus: a taxonomic groups of species exhibiting similar characteristics natural history: the study of animals, plants, and minerals biogeography: the sci. study of the geographic distribution of organisms Comparitive anatomy: study of anatomical features of animals of different species Paleontology: the study of fossilized life forms Fixity of species: a theory biblical, everything has existed and will exist by god’s creation Catastrophism: events altered geological features and caused extinction of plants and animals Geology: sci study of earth what it is made of and how it changes over time School of thought: a group of people sharing beliefs or concepts Uniformitarianism: natural processes such as erosion operating in the past are the same as those operating in the present Stratigraphy: the study of layers of rock and relationships among them Glaciology: study of glaciers and other natural phenomenon involving ice Zoology: scientific study of animals Social Darwinism: misguided application of concepts of natural selection and biological evolution to the historical development of human societies, placing special emphasis on the idea of survival of the fittest Fitness: average contribution of an allele or genotype to succeeding generations Creationism: largely Christian belief that all life was created by a supernatural diety , the existence of which is presupposed Intelligent Design: living things occur because of intelligent cause, not undirected processes (evolution or natural selection) Leclercs ideas similar to that of Darwins Jean-Batiste Lamarck: fascinated by taxonomic classification of plants and animals -invidividuals lose those characterestics and gain useful ones -changes a result of an unknown nervous fluid -“theory of acquired traits” Georges Cuvier: comparative and palaeontology -fixity of species, catastrophism, going against church teachings was a perilous undertaking James Hutton: Scottish naturalist and geologist -erosion of sedimentary rock -uniformitarianism -complex writing style prevented public attention Charles Lyell: statigraphy, glaciology, influence on Darwin -hsm beagle, 5 trips, read on whatever history and geology he found -detailed notes on everything he saw and collected -Malthus: food arithmetically, populations geometrically -death, disease, and natural restraint limit population and growth -nature selects for or against individuals -choose certain aspects of organism, some more likely to survive than others -less favourable variants and species will disappear- theory of natural selection Joseph Dalton Hooker- botany (study of plants), lyell strongly opposed to evolutionary ideas -darwin worked secretely describing his ideas on natural selection Alfred Russel Wallace: living and selling organisms, similar to Darwin -greatest work of science ever published, theory leading to tree of life -organisms compete among each other Herbert Spencer- coined survival of the fittest Social Darwinism: holocaust and Rwandan genocide -stf- organisms gain evolutionary success only by being competitive and aggressive -fitness is different -different biological systems Creationism: became particularly prevalent in secular settings -young earth creationist: earth is 10 000 years old, geological estimate 4.5 billion years old -darwin’s work attack on fundamental beliefs, led people abandoning creationist ideas -intelligent design- discredit work of Darwin and other evolutionary anthropologists -religion has no role to play in biological evolution -darwin, avowed agnostic, personal religious beliefs complex -try to join Anglican liturgy, scientific discoveries and death of child prevented it -followed wallace’s suggestion to use lamarck’s explanation of how traits could move from one generation to the next -suggested that gemmules are particles of inheritance produced by organs carried in blood -no one at the time knew how traits were passed from one generation to the next Gregor Mendel, experimented 7 physical characteristics of pea plants -manipulate their reproduction, both male and female reproductive organs -he used selective breeding, cross-pollinated the pure plant strains and observed physical traits of the offspring -allowed offspring to self pollinate -organisms traits pass by units or factors, invidual inherits factor from each parent, a trait might not show up in an individual -factor must mask another -father of genetics, discovered the mechanisms of inheritance, biological evolution the result of genetic variations -phenotypes: observable traits of an organism such as colour genotype: specific genes in individual or population whether expressed physically or not -phenotypes based on genetic code and may skip a generation -must be two alleles for each physical characteristic Yy homozygous: individual organism has two of the same allele at gene heterozygous: different rather than indentical alleles in the corresponding loci of pair of chromosomes Dominant allele: fully expressed in phenotype Recessive: fully expressed in phenotype only when its paired allele is identical -selected pea plants by chance Chapter 2 Readings: -modern evolution biology based on genetics Microevolution: evolutionary changes within populations -two types of cell: prokaryotic and eukaryotic pro like bacteria lack a nucleus, and eu can be uni or multi cellular pro cannot produce multicellular organisms, eu found in plants and animals -within eu are chromosomes (dna molecules containing hereditary info) -eu can duplicate and chrom in complex process known as mitosis, cells divide into 2 daughter cells with same number of chrom as parents -meiosis, daughter cells half the chromosome, formation of haploid cells, determining sex of organism (gametes) -diploid cell cell containing two chrom, one set inherited from each parent -autosome: not able to determine sex -when gamete is made, cgrom find their matches partners and echcnage genetic materials known as recombination or crossing over -gene micing ynique combination of genes from parent and if this did not occur, it would be identical to the parent, new combinations of gene after evert generation -deoxyribonucleic acid, double stranded helix, step ladeer in shape of a corkscrew, rails are rotected by sugar phsopate chemical bonds, form backbone of dna ,four nucleotide bases adenine cytosine guanine and thymine, genetic blueprint -dna strand tightly arapped around proteins called histones to form a chromosome -center of each chrom called centromere, structure plays crucial role in how cells divide and in gene expression -if centromere does not function properly than daughter cells end up not receiving the improper amount of chros resulting in death or abnormatilities -each chrom capped called a telomere which protects the end of chrom from damage -dna contains genetic blueprint necessary for specifying sequence of amino acids that comprise proteins -proteins are building blocks -transcription is biological means of copying dna cone in nucleus and getting out into cytoplasm -nucleus=head office and dna as blueprint RNA: single stranded nucleic acid, primary function of rna in a cell is the step between dna and protein synthesis -cytoplasm-internal fluid dissolved materials and cellular organelles in cell except for nucleus. Primary site for chemical activity in cell -translation: process by which info coded in mRNA is translated into sequence of amino acids in protein -ribosome: structure within cells that manufactures proteins by linking together amino acids according to the coded sequence on a strand of mRNA -codon: genetic info encoded in a sequence of three nucleotides -anticodon: complementary three nucleotide site on tRNA that recognizes and binds to a specific codon on the mRNA during protein synthesis -mutation: an error or alteration of a nucleotide sequence which represents the ultimate source of new genetic material in pops, -at random exposure to UV RAYs Somatic Cells: any cells in body that are not sperm or egg cells, changes to nucleotide sequence of the genetic material in boody cells -genetic changes have very little relevance to evol. Process -germ line mutations have ability to influence evo. Process like fitness -bacteria either survive due to natural resistance or mutation enabling them to survive do not force itself to mutate neutral harmful and beneficial -do not alter genetic code of amino acids LEC OCT 4 Primates are mammals (warm-blooded, having hair and feeding to milk to its young) sharp teeth, very fast -grasping hands and feet, collarbone(clavicle) -radius and ulna and forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision -rotating forearm, large brain, reduction in sense of smell and expansion of primary visual area Primate Activity Patterns -Nocturnal: active at night -Diurnal: active during day -Crepuscular: active at dawn & dusk -Cathemeral: active any time of day or night depending on food availability Strepsirhine Characteristics Dental tooth comb, moist rhinarium (nose), unfused mandibular(jaw) and frontal symphases, tapetum lucidum, postorbitol bar, two superfamilies: lemuroidea and lorisoidea Lemuroidea -madagascar and Comoro islands -arboreal quadrupeds and leapers; some are partially terrestrial -many small bodied spcies are nocturnal -female dominance -varied diet Lorisoidea Found throughout sub-saharan Africa and southeast asia -lorises and galagos -arboreal quadrupeds -nocturnal -varied diet Haplorhine Characteristics -dry nose, retinal fovea (no tapetum lucidum) see colour, postorbitol closure (gorilla skull), fused mandibular and frontal symphases (cf. tarsiers) three infraorders: tarsiiformes, platyrhini Tarsiiformes -one genus (tarius) -southeast asia, phillipines -small body size (80-130 g) -relatively large eyes with fused lower leg bones -entirely faunivorous (certain of meat) Platyrrhines (neotropical monkeys) -Central and South America -body mass: 110g- 11.4 kg -cebidae, atelidae, and callitrichidae -prehensile tail in few spcies -most entirely arboreal Catarrhines (old world monkeys and apes) -Africa, Asia, and southest Asia -body mass: 1kg-175 kg -cercopithecidaem hylobatidae, and hominidae -variety of diets, social organizations, and adaptions Human Beings: homo sapiens Human characterized by: -habitual, upright, bipedal posture and locomotion -use of forelimb almost entirely for manipulation, carrying and throwing; rarely used for locomotion -enormous expansion of brain volume -reduction of jaw/teeth, jaws, and chewing muscles Body Size Scaling: Area (LXW) and volume (LXWXD) change at different rates -animal doubles in size will be eight times heavier -small animals have greater heat (energy) loss than larger animals Primate Habitats -tropical rainforests, dry forests, deserts, and savannas -primary vs. secondary forests -ecological niche Primate Habitats -tropical rainforests, dry forests, deserts, and savannas -primary vs. secondary forests -ecological niche -forest microhabitats -emergent layer -canopy, understory Primate Evolutionary Ecology -bottom up processes -top down processes -seed dispersal and pollination -predation pressures on primates -plant defensive adaptions -physical and chemical Primate Sociality -complex social lives including: -deception -female mate choice -homosexuality -kin recognition -warfare -friendship Primate Social Grooming -more about establishing and maintain social bonds than hygiene -also used to reconcile conflict -cementing social bonds Primate Dominance Hierarchies -social order sustained by aggression -affiliation or other behavior patterns Primate Social Organization -residence group composition -mating systems: who mates with whom -foreaging coherence: who eats with whom -philopatry type -female philopatry: males leave at sexual maturity -male philopatry: females leave at sexual maturity Why do Primates live in groups? Advantages: -improved predator protection -improved access to food -resource defence -increased access to potential mates Disadvantages: -increased predator encounters -more mouths to feed -increased travel/foraging costs -disease transmission Disease Transmission: Ebola in Gorillas in Africa -Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV) in Gabon and Congo -each human outbreak accompanied by reports of gorilla and chimpanzee carcasses in neighbouring forests -in 2002 and 2003, ZEBOV killed about 5000 gorillas in one study area -hemorrhagic rash Primate Conservation -habitat disturbance -logging, agriculture, forest fragmentation, hunting pressures, subsistence vs. economic Oct 11 lecture -temperatures decrease, ice expands, dry hair, forests contract, Paleocene -very different from present day conditions, hotter, more humid paleocene and primate-like mammals: plesiadapiformes (65.5) -body size: tiny shrew sized of small dog niche: likely soilitary coxturnal quadrupeds; well developed sense of smell diet: insects and seeds -used to be classified as primates because of primate like teeth and limbs that are adapted to arboreal lifestyle recent: plesiadapids not primates 1)no postorbital bar, claws instead of nails, eyes placed on side of head and enlarged incisors Two Main Eocene Primate Families 1)adapidae body size: 100g to 6900g -diurnal and nocturnal forms, mainly arboreal quadrupeds, some may have been specialized leapers, smaller adapids ate mostly fruit and insects, larger forms ate more fruit and leaves, led to lemurs? 2) Omomyidae body size: 45g to 2500g -some nocturnal others diurnal, omomyids thought to been specialized leapers, teeth: adapted for eating insects and soft fruits, only few species were leaf eaters, led to tarsiers? -just cause taxa look alike, doesn’t mean they have same ancestor Oligocene Primates -three haplorhine features: fused frontal bone, full postorbital closure, fused mandibular symphasis three taxonomix groups: parapithecidae and platyrrhini South American Primates -primate appear for first time in fossil record of South America towards late Oligocene -origins of south American primate unclear -may have rafted over from Africa Miocene Primates -3 sequential sub-epochs for apeas -early Miocene apes, mid Miocene apes, Miocene monkeys Miocene Primates Early Miocene (23.0-16.0) monkeys and apes (proconsul) apparently confined to Africa Mid-Miocene (16.0-11.6) ape like catarrhines (Dryopithecus) widespread and diverse in Europe and Asia Late Miocene (11.6-5.3) (sivapithecus) became rarer as woodlands and forests replaced by drier and more open habitats Pilocene Weather and Geography -land masses still on move-connection between north and south America opened via panama -fluctuations in global temperatures -mediterranean sea dried up at end of Miocene and filled up again in Pliocene Pliocene Primates -Geography and climate -two main taxa -fossil cercophitecinae -fossil colobinae -phylogenetic relationships unresolved don’t know what soft tissues were Transitional Forms (Apes: Humans) Modifications of postcranial skeleton for bipedal locomotion Shape and size of canines, especially in males, changes so not pointy or blade-like. Reproduction in level of sexual dimorphis, in canine size Expansion of brain Hominins: modern humans, chimpanzees, and fossil species more closely related to each other than to any other living pieces Morphological Trends in Hominin Evolution Mosaic Evolution: major evolutionary changes tend to take places in stages, not all at once -bipedalism, increased brain size, intelligence, relative vs. absolute -Foramen magnum( hole in the back connects spinal cord) (middle-in humans) -gorilla knees, our thigh bones angle (valgus knee) gorillas swing out, cant do heel toe push -gorillas, feet look like hands, big toe in back -they knuckle walk, put all pressure on 2 digit of hand -pelvis to hold all organs, chimpanzee and gorilla is long and narrow hipped -massive selection for cranial capacity -bull dogs only give birth c-section -early fossils only in Africa Transitional Forms -Sahelanthropus Tchadensis -bahr el ghazal, chad -oldest known transitional homonin: 7 MYA -Reconstructed cranium, fragmented mandible, and a few teeth -combonition of ape like and hominin like cranial features Orrorin Tugenensis -kaposomin, Kenya -fragments of mandible, teeth, finger, femur, and humerus -feumur provides evidence of bipedalism, but arm bones indicate adep climber -may represent earliest and first bipedal homonin Ardipithecus ramidus and ardipithecus kadabba Middle awash, Ethiopia A. ramidus: 4.4 mYA B. kaddaba 5.8-5.6 mya -teeth and fragments of various upper and lower bones -both ape like (thin enamel) traits and homonin-like traits (canines have reduced sexual dimporphism, bipedalism) Kenyanthropus platyops -west turkana, Kenya -highly fragmented cranium, a few mandibles, and fragments of skull bones -morphology similar to australophithecines -highly distinctive flat face Oct 18 Key Australophitecines: first real hominins 1. australophitecus anamensis 2. australophitecus afarensis 3. australophitecus africanus 4. australophitecus aethiopicus 5. australophitecus boisei 6. australophitecus robustus 7. australophitecus sediba 1. kanapo, Kenya -4.2-3.9 MYA. -tooth row is parallel (ape like) -partial tibia provides strong evidence for bipedality -primitive (ape-like) cranial morphology and a derived (human-like) postcranial morphology -bipedality, not having a large brain 2. Ethiopia (hadar, omo, and fejej) and Tanzania (laetoli) -4.2-3.0 MYA -many specimens -complex morphology exhibiting some ape-like traits (sagittal crests) and hominin- like traits (valgus knee) -single sexually dimorphic species or two species -lived over a million years, extreme hostle conditions surrounded by other large animals, selective for bipedalism, large canines, sexually dimorphic large male n female 3. 3.6 MYA in Laetoli, Tanzania -demonstrate that early hominins were bipedal -big toes hardly diverged from the
More Less

Related notes for ANT100Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.