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Condensed exam notes- Antb22.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Bianca Dahl

1 ANTB22 Final exam notes • Leaky’s angels: Dian Fossey (Gorillas in Rwanda), Jane Goodall (chimps in Africa), Birute Galdikas (orangutans)  Lemurs= most aggressive; will harm other females and close kins (kill infants and even consume them) , very dominant (matrilineal)  Gorillas= low level of aggression  Bonobos chimp (Pan paniscus): low level of aggression -> males are philopatric  Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus)  Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus;Pongo abelii) : aggressive male-male competition  Vervet monkeys: aggression towards same status monkeys; Female philopatric  Gelada baboons: polygyny-> strong female-to-female connection  Hamadryas baboons: polygyny -> strong male-to-female connection  Rank inheritance: Macaques ; Vervets; Baboons  Know key terms pointed out in class (e.g. bimaturism, folivore) - lemurs are found in madagascar; -> lorises you find in Asia  Great Apes are from Africa- Not New World  Know difference between coalition and polyspecific associations  Reproduction skew  Grandmother hypothesis Gelada baboons Hamadryas baboons Female-bonded; males disperse Male-bonded; females disperse If the male disappears, the group If the male disappears, the group will still stay together and will disperse. He holds the group probably find another male. together by aggression and herding. The females are power brokers There is a lot more competition and and have a lot of influence in less cooperation among the females. which males will join the group. (Since they're not related.) Last lecture (Apes continued) Bonobos chimp: Much lower levels of aggression (comparing everything to common chimp)  son’s dominance rank is largely determined by mother’s rank, not father’s  females disperse and males are philopatric  at a very young age, female leaves natal group and joins another group and tries to become closer to the dominant female)  Bonobo chimps have a fight, then have sexual relations to make up  “G-G rubbing” (Genito-genital rubbing)- females do this  “Rump-rump contact”- males do this  Jane Goodall made several discoveries: 2 – Tool use (e.g. termite-fishing) – Hunting – Inter-troop aggression (‘warfare’) – Cannibalism (those with females that went killing other females infant, in some cases the infants were consumed) Orangutan taxonomy: • On the island of Borneo, one species: - Pongo pygmaeus • On the island of Sumatra, one species: - Pongo abelii • Birute Galdikas documented: – Diet, sociality – Tool use – Leaf umbrella – Leaf ‘toilet paper’ – Modify sticks for insect collection Galdikas observed physically aggressive male-male competition • Galdikas became a ‘surrogate’ mother (she adopted an infant), so she took her on her research - Hunting, poaching, pet trade (infants are wanted, so mothers are killed)  Palm oil plantations (big problems!) -> they produce it because it’s cheap Second last lecture – Monkeys and Apes Vervet monkeys:  Female philopatric : loving land; they like to stay at their birthplace location and the males come to them  Polygynandry: promiscuous relationships  Dark blue testes: dominant male  Light blue: subordinate male • If a male falls in rank, his testicles lose dark blue hue and become light blue (ex. of visual communication) • Males with darkened testicles: 1) Received aggression from ‘true’ dark-testicle males 2) Received less aggression from pale-testicle males Gelada Baboons: • Live in 1-male groups (one-male units) in the highlands of Ethiopia, Africa • Mating system: polygyny (one guy, many girls) • Females have white vesicles on chest & neck that enlarge during estrus (called a “pearl necklace”) 3 • Sexually dimorphic species: males are larger than females; males have enlarged canines and a huge mane of hair (a ‘cape’ of hair) • If a female becomes separated from her group male or is threatened, she will ‘punish’ (be aggressive to) the ‘leader’ male > females have close affiliative bonds with each other (live in philopatric groups) • In Hamadryas baboons, the female is closer to the male and in gelada baboons, the female is closer to other females and males disperse > Scramble competition over food > Predators: leopards, hyenas, Ethiopian wolves Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) > Previous free-ranging group on St. Catherines Island • Enrichment: Providing stimuli that promote the expression of species-appropriate behavior and mental activities in an understimulating environment > Play equipment (ropes, hammocks, perches, tubes, slides, etc.) > Hiding food in toys to cognitively challenge primates Mountain Gorillas: > Researcher Dian Fossey > Habituated mountain gorillas by imitating their behaviours, sounds > Was the first researcher to be ‘accepted’ by a gorilla group (Know figures of primatology (Jane Goodall and Dian Fossey, Louis Leaky) > Fossey established the Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda, Africa • Relatively low levels of aggression • Primarily vegetative diet (folivores)  Before she did her work, people thought of gorillas as aggressive, man-eaters, but in reality they have low levels of aggression Problems faced by Fossey • Gorillas would get caught in animal snares • Poaching: gorilla hands selling in black market • Started anti-poaching patrols (hired own people who carried weapons/guns) • Aggressively confronted poachers (threaten people, burn camps, etc.) • Used local people’s beliefs to scare them for her own purposes (they thought she was a witch) • Fossey was found murdered in her cabin (they used her own weapon) Prosimians (third last lecture): Lemurs:  Cathemerality showing both diurnal and nocturnal activity  Female dominance: Ring tailed lemurs -> female will not be submissive  Targeted aggression: females attack other females, even their close relatives (sisters, cousin, etc)  Females can only mate when pregnancy is possible (when ovulation occurs) 4  For lemurs, reproduction is controlled by photoperiod (# hrs of exposure to daylight out of a 24-hr period) > ovulation is dependent on the presence of light they get in a day  Female dominance: The ability of all adult females to consistently evoke submissive behaviour from all males in dyadic agonistic interactions > Female dominance depends on the sexual maturity of the female  Adult females are dominant to males in all contexts: feeding, resting, mating, etc. > Young females do not become dominant to males until after their first breeding season  Those baby males can be dominant to those females ???  During sexual encounters, females can be submissive to males when estrous -> in hyenas  “True” female dominance exists in the following lemurs: Ring-tailed lemur, sifaka, mouse lemur, blue-eyed lemur  Brown lemurs -> not female dominant 1) Male submission is a reproductive tactic > is seen as a form of male ‘investment’’ in the female and her offspring 2) Males are conserving energy throughout the year by not ‘wasting’ it being aggressive to females > Suggests that males are saving up energy for mating competition without other males during the breeding season [On exam: name/describe 2 of the different hypothesis to explain female dominance in lemurs] 3) Energy frugality hypothesis: Madagascar has a harsh, unpredictable and highly seasonal environment – These factors cause extreme reproductive stress on females  They all turn against one female or group of female -> “we liked you yesterday but we hate you today”  Occurs in ring-tailed lemurs and brown lemurs • Infanticide by females (intra-and extra-group) • ‘kidnapping’ • Infant abuse • Why do these behaviours occur ? -> female-female competition (usually for food) > Make the baby think their its mom, or kill the baby Human arrival on the island of Madagascar • Extinction of several animal species, including “giant” lemurs > Approximately 2000 years ago “Megafauna” : several animal species started to go extinct - Fossils as young as 1000 years ago - Some as large as 200 kilograms - All lemurs species over 10kg went extinct (approx. 1/3 of the lemur species) - Pygmy hippopotamuses - Flightless birds Evidence of Human Hunting 5  Lemur hunting continues today  Subfossil lemur bones bear marks of human butchery  Arboreal traps used to catch lemurs, slings can also be used at close range Anthropogenic changes: changes caused by human activity -provisioning by humans Sometimes animals start to depend on the provision food and won’t have the normal diet, which affects their health Eating trash and human and animal feces • Lemurs forced to feed on sub-optimal foods • Exposure to parasites and diseases carried by domesticated animals • Alopecia (hair loss) in wild ring-tailed lemurs probably related to ingestion of an introduced plants • Plant contains compounds that are associated with arrested hair follicle activity • Slash-and-burn agriculture ‘tavy’  We should know TAVY for exam!!  slash-and-burn method, known as tavy. The smaller trees and bush are cut down and left to dry, then burned just before the rainy season  Tavy is mostly used for converting tropical rainforests in Madagascar into rice fields.  Typically, an acre or two of forest is cut, burned, and then planted with rice • Establishment of protected national parks and reserves in Madagascar (They bring huge groups in, keep the forest as is ‘in situ’ conservation (in natural habitat) FOR EXAM: know difference between in situ and ex-situ • Role of zoos and captive breeding facilities (ex-situ) -role of zoos to educate the public In situ is protecting an endangered animal on site, or in its habitat; ex situ is when an endangered species is out of its habitat and is being conserved. • Reintroduction: release of animals into the wild, either those that were captive-bred or from another wild location > The goal of reintroduction is not for the animals to live; it’s to pass on their genes (if they mate once and die, it’s good because genes have been passed) Foraging and Predation  Give an ex. Of a type of prosimian : ex. tarsier Know about hamadryas monkeys and gelada monkeys Hamadryas baboons have polygyny - Know crop-raiding and know it’s a conflict - Capuchin monkeys eats birds, lizards, squirrels and bats - Tarsiers eat snakes - Chimpanzees will hunt colobus monkeys - Baboons will sometimes catch and eat hares, small ungulates 6 - Pythons consume lorises  Polyspecific association: Groups of two or more different species in permanent (or
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