ANT206 lecture 11 final .odt

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University of Toronto St. George
Lindsay Bell

ANT206 Lecture 12 Final Tutorial : Body Modification: HSC 304 (4-5) Service Workers: HSC 304 (5-6) Language: Power, Politics and Social Practice Style • style is instrumental to marking group-specific ways of speaking • the term “style” in linguistic anthropology draws our attention to how speakers use the resource of language variation to make meaning in social encounters • agency is the idea that i am an agent and i am conscious of how i talk, that is the idea of freedom, how do i choose how to talk • structure is about constraint, how are my ways of speaking constrained by the different forces of the world Language is not an object of contemplation, rather is it an instrument of action and power linguistics try to do language without thinking about power because it is separate but linguistic anthropologists sat it is inseparable power- who gets to decide what language is acceptable Pierre Bourdieu's Vocabulary of Power • Habitus: a set of predispositions or habits within individuals that are shaped by the social structures from which they emerge. They lead individuals to produce actions and representations that will either reproduce or transform those social structures. We both shape and are shaped by our social and cultural surroundings ▪ predispositioned because he chooses the word carefully. Habitus is not predetermined but it is predisposed given your family background, social class, ethnic ties- you are being predisposed to different ways of thinking and speaking ▪ the relationship between men and women have changed in the past 40 years and that is because of the habitus • Agha (2007) adds that social life of the habitus is mediated by discursive interactions, through everyday verbal and nonverbal interactions, one communicative event at a time and through multiple meta-linguistic processes ▪ talking like a graduate student is all habitus ▪ you are signalling to the world that you are part of a specific field ▪ we get to have this way of being in the body and this way of talking by being here (UofT- us as undergraduates) • if you can imagine, we have different linguistic styles, the world is structured by social feileds (school, workplaces, higher end workplaces), and there are certain styles that have symbolic capital in each place. There are ways of speaking that are more valued in other fields (French school: everyone speaks french but there are different ways of speaking french and have symbolic capital in school but not at home) • linguistic markets: every CoP is a social field, there are certain ways of speaking that are more valuable than others • for example: the ways of speaking in retail might have symbolic capital in selling space but may not be good in selling high end art or construction.. if a person is moving across spaces, they have to acquire that symbolic capital • Bodily Hexis: power differentials can be maintained or can exacerbated through habitual non- verbal behaviour communicating value judgements about “appropriate” dress, manners, or posture • Hexis includes ways of using the mouth. For Bourdieu, “phonetic competence (pronunciation) is a dimension of bodily hexis in which one's whole relation to the social world, and one' whole socially informed relation to the world, are expressed” (1991:86). ▪ the ways in which we pronounce words signal lots of stuff about us ▪ what makes language a “real language” • Doxa: every cultural value or norm that lies outside the universe of doscourse or argument. What is “common sense” or goes without saying (chart on lecture slide) ▪ inside the circle is things that people argue about (gay marriage), it is in the realm of discourese ▪ doxa is something that is not argued about, it is taken for granted ▪ doxa in the gym group is that exercise is good. Exercise is not illegal, let's keep exercise out. ▪ Exercise is good way of shaping the body, good for health. Everyone thinks its a good thing. ▪ what we don't fight about is whether exercise is good (doxa) ▪ where did this start from? We have jobs where we sit and do nothing to keep our bodies in shape, therefore, going to the gym benefits everyone and keeps them from getting sick since people around the world were dying • Linguistic Market: social fields where different valuations of language circulate • symbolic capital: (cultural, social): who you know, how you know how to behave (doxa) • Symbolic dominance/violence: the power to decide which linguistic varieties will have the most value in dominant social fields ▪ who decides which symbolic forms will be valued • Misrecognition: failure to realize that different levels of prestige associated with certain linguistic forms is arbitrary ▪ standard English versus other English, the one that we thing is right for University talking and the other one isn't, that is arb
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