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All lectures/notes for linguistic/socio part of the test

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Kalmar/ Boddy

Anthropology: the study of what it means to be human Homo Sapien: humans that know Nature - the genetic makeup Nurture - given by society. - Culture is considered nature; however, by nature we are heavier on the nurture side, which makes us human - Culture and language are programmed into us. They are part of our genetic makeup and are called universals. Specific languages and specific cultures are particulars. They are learned. - Social transition (learning) is more flexible than genetic transition. Major changes can occur within a generation or two without changing species. However, it can get complicated (for example: people are taller - is it culture or genes?) The Origins of Anthropology - anthropology developed in the 19th century in the West - it was largely a disciplines for explaining the non-west - they ranked language on a scale of primitive to advanced, even though all language follows the same structure. Schlegel falsely wrote that the Indo European language was the most advanced because it spread all over the world. - it was the same with culture: Primitive cultures were the lowest. They had not changed through time. Nomads Agricultural Civilizations Modern Western World considered the most civilized because it took over the world - Race does not exist. It is a folk notion. Some looks can correlate with genes, but not enough to consider races. They still categorize race today in ways that dont make much sense - some colour, some ethnicity, etc. The origin categorization was black, white, red, yellow - One Drop Rule: one drop of Black blood made you Black. This proves that racial classifications are made by society. The black and white races were invented with the discovery of America and the start of the slave trade. Whiteness was thought to represent freedom, and therefore much be protected. - Ethnocentrism: racial and cultural prejudice Theories: Bronislaw Malinowski: each culture responds to its own niche equally well Franz Boas: (1858-1942) each culture is language, cultural and physical type. A higher culture is one that recognizes that we are all equally human Margaret Mead: Orderly, complex customs (Bali) Cultural Relativism: we should never judge other cultures, and there are no universal standards of progress. They say universal really means western. example: In some cultures its okay to punish your children by hitting them. Do we consider this culture and leave it, or say theres a universal standard and step in?
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