Very THOROUGH notes on exact text pages indicated by Danesi for his exam

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University of Toronto St. George
Marcel Danesi

Jan-Mar, 2010 Anthropology- Linguistics Notes Danesis section Chapter 1- 2.1- Interference Interference phenomena -falls generally under contact linguistics. The study of interference has shown that linguistic borrowing, calquing, and other language mixing phenomena, have been significant factors in the change and generation of new forms of language. 2.2. Communication and miscommunication and the global village: -Verbal communication rarely results in the direct transmission of information from one speaker to the next without affecting the content and the intent in the information -With IC, a message can be interpreted correctly only if the sender and receiver possess the same kind of structural and conceptual knowledge built into the language used to transmit the message Verbal Programing- Construction of messages -Although the objective of global linguistics is to study the role of verbal programming involved in intercultural communication, nonverbal dimensions such as body language and visual communication, must also be taken into account. -The two most important dimensions of verbal programming are: Pragmatic Dimension, and Logico-semantic dimension Pragmatic Dimension- Understanding that language is used as a way of interacting in a variety of social settings (Interaction Fields). -Language used to: inform, question, make promises and requests, to complain, to apologize, to greet, and another of other social actions. -The successful use of language in these various situations depends on the participants common understanding of the social situation, and of the inferences they draw form a variety of subtle cues. Logico-semantic- How people use languages to: represent the world conceptually, combine simple concepts into complex ideas, and use simple and complex concepts to reason about the world in vital inference schemes. www.notesolution.comMetaphor and Argumentation- Two phenomena relating to the semantic and pragmatic dimensions of global linguistics. Metaphors- Semantic dimension relies on metaphorical strategies to conceptualize the world, particularly when making sense of complex and abstract conceptual ideas. It is done so metaphorically using simple references to our basic experiences of the physical world. Ex: Complex social domain of economics and finance- Metaphor used Money is liquid. These are simple words, but through applying what they associate with physically, they can be used to express complex theory and meaning. -Basic understanding of water being fluid, drying up, freezing. -Central banks inject more cash into financial system -Iceland missed signs of Liquidity Freeze. Argumentative Strategies- Attempts to persuade some one through providing reasoning- Arguments are modes of gaining: warranted assent, reasoned adherence, voluntary and informed acceptance. Arguments = Central route of persuasion- affects deepest and most stable changes in attitudes. Peripheral route of persuasion- Fickle and superficial changes in attitudes based only on emotions, authority, or association of ideas. -Healthy intercultural argumentation is necessary to IC, to give solid grounding and cooperation of people form different cultures. Problems with Intercultural Argumentation- Studies have shown that participants judging intercultural arguments say that often the arguments being presented are illogical, irrelevant, or muddled in thinking. Presents the question: Do people from other cultures have different logic? Three sources of difficulty in IC argumentation: -Speaker is unable to conceive their message precisely in conceptual terms- I did not know what to say -Speaker can conceptualize the message but cannot express it. I dont know how to say it -Speaker can conceptualize the problem, and knows how to express it, but will not do so for cultural reasons (inappropriate, impolite)- One cannot say that Non-communication- When no meaning comes across to the hearer Miscommunication- When an unintended message is communicated to the hearer Two types of communication failure concerning pragmatic dimension:
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