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Archaeology Quiz 2 Review.odt

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Archaeology Quiz 2 Review Hadar • Eastern African Rift Valley in Ethiopia • fossils of australoputhecines, (Lucy) • 2.5 MYA • clay soil – no signs of river activity • tools manufactured by hominins, not a geological effect • main tools found are sharp-edged flakes and cores, choppers • BKT-2 tuff ◦ underlies site ◦ 2.9 MYA • BKT – 3 tuff ◦ overlies site ◦ 2.3 MYA • stone tools produced between 2.9-2.3 MYA • well preserved maxilla (palate), belonging to genus Homi • Tools here are of simplest form Lokalalei • West Turkana region of northern Kenya • EastAfrican Rift Valley site • 2.3 MYA • Tools produced through elaborate process • Knapping was not random and haphazard • Complexity shows that first stone tools were not simplest of all possible FLK North • Olduvai Gorge, Bed I • six distinct occupation levels • complete skeleton of elephant found in lowest level with a few choppers and flakes • small fragments of other smaller animals found around elephant • evident butchering site • either elephants were driven to swamp to be killed or hominin's came across an elephant carcass which they savaged. DK • Olduvai Gorge • A stone circle was found there, suggesting evidence of a temporary structure built on a home- base site • Early hominin base camp suggests that these sites would have resembled modern human hunter-gatherer camps • However, it is possible that the circle is a natural feature since, it is immediately above volcanic bedrock, • Area outside circle has no loose stones but they are present 2ft away from the circle Dmanisi • Oldest archaeological site outside of Africa • In Republic of Georgia • 1.7-1.8 MYA • Fossils found dating to 1.8 MYA • Complete crania of homo erectus and stone tools where found • Larva dates 1.8MYA is below the level at which hominin where found (so they are younger) • Hominin occupation would then be dated to 1.1-1.8 MYA • Animal species found with hominin skeletons where extinct after 1.7MYA, so it must've been about 1.8 MYA • Earliest evidence of human occupation outside africa • No apparent evidence of hominins hunting animals or use of stone tools on them Nihewan Basin • Northern China • Human occupation 1.6 MYA • Stones tools were flakes, made from poor materials Radiation : period in which there is a rapid increase in the diversity of a single lineage. During the period between 4 – 2 MYAthere was a radiation in hominin lineage. Dispersal :An event where a single species dramatically expands its range. Contrasts radiation in that it expands both its geographical and ecological range. Where radiation involves a wide diversity of a new species evolving. Hominin: members of the human lineage after it split with the chimpanzee lineage Homo Erectus: The first hominin found on sites outside of africa. The earliest known homo erectus fossils date the the period between 1.9 – 1.5 MYA Acheulian: the earliest of these industries date to 1.7-1.5 MYA. The sites are found throughout africa. The period began at the same time as the first appearance of the homo erectus and the extinction of the homo habilis • a characteristic tool is the bi-face : earliest evidence of design Home base/food sharing model : model developed by Glynn Isaac that sees the sharing of meat at the base camps as a fundamental part of the lives of early hominins. Oldowan: lower paleolithic stone tool industry, dated between 1.9-1.15MYAcharacterized by choppers and flakes. Umm el Tlel • in syria, over 500 000 years old • fragment of a Levallois point was found embedded in the cervical vertebra of a wild ass • spe
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