Semester 1

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT200Y1
Professor
Michael Chazan
Semester
Fall

Description
Part I Topics1 Basic principles of survey design and the use of GIS in archaeology Surveys map the physical remains of human activity Surveys done to discover sites understand distribution of sites within a region etctakes into account geological factors that affect preservation and visibility of sites In situ material is recovered in the place it was originally de positedproblematic with erosion can redeposit materials in places through water etc In depositional environments constant build up of sediments there artifacts might not always be found on the surfacedig small pits to find buried artifacts Methods used to detect deposits and collectorganize spatial information y Remote sensing aerial and satellite photography y Lying below surface without no excavationmagnetometry and groundpenetrating radar y Precise location of sites can be determined with handheld GPS receivers GISgeographical information systemsoftware applications that allow spatial data to be brought together and consolidatedy Works as a series of layersoverlays set to the same scaley Ex aerial photo topographic map soil map etc all from the same regionmust know the exact longitude and latitude of 23 points in the area on the map to be georeferenced then can be digitized as either a digital or raster image scanned pic y Once digitized and georeferenced then can be treated as layers by a GIS programoverlay images at uniform scalelocation y Can be used to explore the way people in the past would have experienced the environment 2 Distinction between horizontal and vertical excavation Horizontalexcavating broad area to expose remains of single point in time ex city of Pompeii preserved by volcanic ashAndre LeroiGourhan helped pioneer this could reconstruct locations of tents etc by using remains tools etc Verticalexpose record of a sequence of occupation longterm processes of culture change analyze the stratigraphy of the siteexcavate entire depth of deposits in that section3 Principles of stratigraphy and the law of superposition Stratigraphic sequence builds up when deposits laid down with the law of superposition in an undisturbed depositional sequence each layer is younger than the layer beneath itthe accumulation of strata Sequence can be continuous sediments uniform throughout or discontinuous clear breaks in the sedimentdiscrete layers foundstrataFormed through natural depo flooding vegetation etc and cultural depo construction etc4 A Basic stratigraphic exercise recognizing how the temporal order of deposits is identifiedIf rocks are sedimentary can apply the law of superposition lower rocks older than higher onesDepositional event accumulation of material on a site Methods to assist in stratigraphic order y Soil micromorphologycharacterize accumulation of sediments at a micro scale y Harris matrixmethod for placing depositional units in stratigraphic order y Postdepositional process anaylsisexamines naturalcultural processes that affected the formation of the site
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