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ANT203 test 3 notes.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Xueda Song

Interpreting fossil remainsneed geological knowledge relative dating chronometric dating statistical analysis with computerized phylogenetic techniques broad knowledge of primates and mammals and of other sciencesconsider taphonomic processes sedimentation and formation of site including transformation of organisms after death context factors in taphonomy include soil ph drainage water geology weathering sun wind bioturbation animal and insect activity roots subsequent human activity eg lootingDating methodsRelative datingstratigraphylaw of superposition a lower stratum is older than a higher stratumbiostratigraphy faunal correlationcompare faunal remains to those from other sites with known datesflourine analysisflourine in ground water is incorporated during fossilization can only be used on bones which have to be from the same locationChronometric absolute datingPotassiumargondecay of potassium into argon gashalflife 125 billion yearsgood for rocks exposed to high heat like from volcanic activityCarbon14decay of isotopes C and Chalflife of 5730 yearsused to date organic materials like cloth wood and boneonly works on materials younger than 75000 yearsThermoluminescencerelies on principle of radiometric decaystone contains trace amounts of radioactive elements which are released when the stone is heatedby heating the sample and measuring its glow it can be datedPaleomagnetismbased on shifting of earths magnetic polestake sample of sediment containing magnetically charged particles with exact compass orientation recordedcorrelate sample with sequence of magnetic orientationsMolecular clockbased on genetic mutations which occur at regular rate used for time since LCA divergences cladistic relationshipsPRIMATE ORIGINSduring the Late Mesozoic the superorder Euarchonta diverged from mammalsrefers to sister orders of tree shrews flying lemurs and primatesbased on molecular and morphological evidence primates originated diverged from the LCA sometime between 9065 myamost primate evolution unfolded in the Cenozoic Era split into seven epochsPaleocene 65 myaprimatelike mammals PlesiadapiformesEocene 558 myafirst true primates PromisiansOligocene 33 myaearly CatarrhinesMiocene 23 myamonkeys apes and first humanlike beings emergePliocene 53 myaearly humans diversifyPleistocene 18 myaearly Homo emergesHolocene 001 myathe present epochArchaic Primates6552 myaa major radiation of archaic primates Plesiadapiforms namely PurgatoriusPlesiadapisrodentlike incisors but not continuously growing or selfsharpeningprobably originated in North America and spread to EuropeCarpolestespostcranial anatomy indicates arboreal adaptationsrecently discovered skeleton had nails not clawsalso Altiatlasus which is not conclusively classified EuprimateEocene Euprimates558 myafive distinctive traits which suggest adaptation to a warmer lush climate of broadleaved evergreen forestsforwardfacing eyesgreater encephalizationpostorbital barnails not clawsopposable big toeLemurlike Adapoidsmost primitive Euprimates dental formula 2143Amphipithecids Asiamandiblesteeth seem derived but just convergent evolutionNotharctids North America and two species from EuropeCantius Darwinius IdaAdapids
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