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ANT203 Notes Test 1.pdf

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Xueda Song

ANT203Y1 Test 1LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTIONAnthropology anthroposlogos the study of manfocus cultural and biological evolution of our species and primate relatives observation of adaptationsEvolution is change over time In the biological sense it occurs at the genetic level and results in the formation of new species Adaptation refers to biological or behavioural responses of an organism or population to the environmentkey human adaptations includebrain size in relation to bodylanguage usecreationlevel and complexity of tool usebipedalismthe fossil record tells us where and when adaptations occuredThe fourfield approach provides a holistic and broad ranging perspective on anthropology by creating categories of study which all describe an aspect of humanity1Sociocultural Anthropology patterns of belief and behaviour in human cultures extant or nonextant2Linguistic Anthropologyconcerned with origins and evolution of languagespeech and language distinguish humans from other primatesanimals3Archaeological Anthropologyanalysis of what past populations have left behind material cultureartifacts objects made or modified by humans4PhysicalBiological Anthropologya scientific discipline asks what it means to be human through the study of the biology and behaviour of humans other primates and fossil ancestorsPhysicalBiological Anthropologyoriginated in the 18th Century 1700sstrong religious beliefs stated that all variation came from creationfirst fossils were being found in Europe some humanbeginning of paleoanthropologyPaleoanthropology is the study of the evolution of humans including their biology and behaviour based on data from the fossil record using essentially the same methods as archaology The field includesattempts to reconstruct anatomysense of form and function of bones for knowledge about locomotion dietreconstruction of past ecosystemsultimate goal to understand circumstances that led to the origins of modern humansPrimate Paleontology looks at the entire fossil record for the order primates which originated around 65 million years ago around the extinction of the dinosaursprimate paleontologists will also attempt reconstructions as abovesuggest evolutionary relationships with other groups including living onesThe primate fossil record spans 65 million yearsNAMELOCATIONDATEDESCRIPTIONancestor of old word monkeys apes Aegyptopithecus 35 MAEgyptand humans potentiallyRudapithecus10 MAall over Europeprovided important insight into Australopithecus locomotionwas long thought to be the 3930 MAEast Africaafarensis Lucyfirst biped we now have earlier examplesa metre tall showed that humans were not the only hominid species left after some went extinct 30000 years agowould expect v humanlike Homo floresiensis1813000 Indonesiacharacteristics but actually quite the hobbityears agoprimitiveonly as similar to us as around the time of Lucy nonetheless existed during the same time period as modern humansPaleobiogeography studies the geographic distribution of fossil originshow this changes over time in response to environmental changes eg temphow the fossils are related to modern humans is important to anthropologyAnthropometry is the measure and analysis of body proportionsearly literature documented variability in existing human populationsslide image craniometer for dimensionsmeasures have been abused to racist endsnow used to plan and design the modern human environmentdesks chairs etc data gives good sense of patterns of growth and development in humans called ontogeny ex can check that kids are growing normally by comparing to standardOsteology is the study of skeletal structure and function which has made important contributions to other areas ie digging up a skeleton relates to the fossil recordBioarchaeology refers to the study of osteological material in an archaeological contextPaleopathology is the study of disease and trauma in past populationsmany deficiencies and diseases leave clear marks in the fossil record see slideForensic Anthropology involves field and lab work to help identify and analyze human remains usually in relation to disasters or legal issuesstereomicroscope used to see trauma at the microscopic levelPhysicalBiological Anthropology subfields
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