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Diane Riskedahl

Lecture 8The Social Bodythe notion of society as a bodythe social organism was like the individual organism in at least 3 ways 1 they augment in mass grow bigger 2 there is increasing complexity of structure 3 the various parts gradually acquire mutual dependenceDurkhein theorized that there are 2 basic types of society solidarity that relate to the division of labor organic and mechanical o Believed modern industrialized societies functioned organicallyeach sector devoted to only one kind of labor only a part of the functioning whole o In primitive societies he believed the division of labor was far less differentiatedeveryone performing the same essential taskDelaney believed this nomenclature is deceptive modern societies are dominated by machineprimitive societies are closer to the organic worldtypically divided by gender age and other criteriaUnderlying point is valid in order to be a society the population has to be regulated and the tasks have to be both distributed and integrated for the society to functionBodies are shaped by cultural values and ideals families and peers and in a more forceful way by governmentsall attempt to regulate and subject individual bodies to the social orderDouglas body is a model which can stand for any bounded systemboundaries can represent any boundaries which are threatened or precarious o Reveals basic differences between British social anthropology and American cultural anthropology o The body is a rich source of symbolsDelaney cannot assume their meaning is naturally determined or universal o Does not specify which kind of bodymale or femaleIn Turkey only male body is thought to be bounded the female body is relatively unbounded sprouts breasts its belly distends in pregnancy menstruation and lactationGendered symbolism intensified the meaning of the patrol of Turkeys borders and point of entrythey patrol the motherland as they patrol and surveil protect their women Body and Nationwomen often symbolize the nationits physical land mass and boundariesmen usually represent it both as heads of state and as its defendersEurope female bodies symbolized them as Britannia Germania MarianneUSA the Statue of Liberty assumed the placeNazi Germany the state developed cult of the bodyespecially nude male body as the temple of manlinessGermany was to be a manly nation o Heart of the Nazi ideology Lebensborn movementThe found that would supply the revitalized nation with its vital new citizenso Pure bloods were to marry own Aryans o Women are recuited to reproduce the nationin many countries only male citizens are able to pass on citizenship to their childrenthe modern nationstate has been built on the bodies of menusually men when are conscitped to fight and die for themnation controls our bodies in many waysuse of their bodies has been legitimated through rhetorics of honor and glory so they will not seem to have died in vain Rights in our Bodies and Rights to our bodiesdeciding who should receive health care and who should have access to good food and housingshapes the bodies of its inhabitantscan scrutinize and even block certain kinds of bodies form entering the country ex Bodies with disabilities AIDS etc o in the states poor women are the target for state population control policiesbelieved poor women reproduced to gain added welfare benefitsalthough it takes 2 to make a child women are the target for birth control programsin the states womens control over their bodies is quite limitedBordo 2 different traditions have influenced both law and medicine concerning individual rights one for embodied subjects and the other for those who come to be treated as mere bodies despite official rhetoric that vehemently forswears such treatment of humans beings o Describes women bodies as fetal incubators o are women personsBecoming Pilgrims in the Holy Land On Filipina Domestic Workers Struggles and Pilgrimages for a Cause in IsraelFilipino pilgrimages to holy sites in Israel sacralise the humdrum and sometimes demeaning realities of their work enabling them to transcend through performance the migrant label assigned to them by contemporary migration regimes in the international division of labourBecoming pilgrims and tourists in the Holy Land migrants discover alternative life narratives which position them on a journey within a sacred geography at the centre of Christian devotion suffusing their movements along transnational networks and migration routesFilipina care and domestic workers pilgrimage journeys and sanctifying encounters in Israel these journeys transform symbolically and experientially the wider journeys embarked upon by Filipinos in the migration processIn contrast the process of sacralisation through journeying is one of discovering and then experiencing the sacred in the land of migrationFilipino migrants typically narrate their migration moves to Israel as the outcome of both economic need and a desire to travel to see the beautiful places depicted in the Bible and experience the holy land familiar to them as Christians from early childhood and thus imbued with emotion Travelling the Holy Land Pilgrimages for a CauseDespite their legal social and political exclusion from citizenship and belonging in Israel Filipinos have succeeded in organising collectively and appropriating their own spaces especially in Tel AvivIn southern Tel Aviv tens of thousands of migrants come together to spend and celebrate their weekly day off on Saturdays or Sundays share rented flats go shopping organize picnics in public parks send remittances to family in the Philippines or attend churchThree pilgrimages in particular stand out in size and significance from among the ten to twelve pilgrimages organised by the group throughout the year Palm Sunday and Good Friday in Jerusalem each marked by large Christian processions through the city and Christmas in Bethlehem Figures 1 and 2 During these holidays which according to Christian belief mark central historical events of Jesuss life the pilgrims set out to celebrate and commemorate these events at the very geographical site of their original happeningMost had been in Israel for 1 or 2 years had just finished paying back the often considerable loans taken out to come to Israel and wanted to visit every important holy site at least once before possibly turning illegal and being forced to leave Israel within 4 or 5 years of their arrivalOthers join the pilgrimage to fulfil a vow to visit or pray at a specific site during significant moments in their lives such as before leaving Israel for healing the graduation of children whose education one has paid for or the fidelity of partners far awayThe police and local guards tell pilgrims to move on keep silent and to not take pictures Church guards at the sites appear to be especially annoyed with Filipinos reprimanding or even pushing them aside for not dressing modestly enough failing to switch off mobile phones taking pictures or happily chattering even at the holiest of holiesIn the crush of humanity pilgrims are happy if they actually manage to reach and touch a holy site for just a few seconds or take a picture to prove they were thereChain of LoveFilipino are preferred as domestic workers compared to others because they are God fearing honest obedient etc
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