Globalization's Core Challenge
• Is it recognition?
Right to be different
• Or is it distribution?
o Right to a fair share in context of gross inequality
o Fair share of global resources in the context of inequality
• James Ferguson
o Thinking about globalization and is it recognition or comparison?
o There is always a hierarchy→ everyone is always struggling to
• Easier to recognize cultural difference than deal with questions of
inequality because that has to do with distribution
Globalization and Recognition
• Is culture becoming uniform?
o Not actually because people are still making efforts to highlight
ethnic and cultural boundaries
• Rise of identity politics
• Ethnicity, religion revitalized
o Highly identified that the person will present themselves mainly
with that identity
• Hybrids (cultural mixing)
o Problem is that it assumes the cultures were different to begin
o Cultures are not that bounded to start with
• Creoles, modifications
o What are the power relations going on? What is and isn't
• Creative cultural adaptations?
o Should this be celebrated or is it imperialism?
• Cultural imperialism, duress
o People aren't really free to pick and choose and that there are
accepted and non-accepted forms of hybridity
Globalization and Indigeneity
• Risk of annihilation - less now
o There is some protection of indigenous people
• Cultural imperialism - persists?
o Amazon → faced with the loss of land against logging
corporations and other expansive ventures
o Kayapo→ Were able to team up with Brazilian urban-based
anthropologists, journalists, etc. that lept to the defense of the indigenous population not with the idea that they have the territory
belongs to them but rather the Amazonians were nature
o Strategic essentialism→ emphasize difference, fit niche
• Eg. Conservation, nature, culture
• But some Kayapo leaders allowed logging company to cut down some
o Had showed them that the territory was theirs when people
fought for them
Inequality and Boundaries
• Rich can choose to travel, become cosmopolitan, select culture, cuisine
- on own terms
• Poor, travel as workers, refugees, illegals; forced to adapt
• "tradition"/religion as means to assert some control
Globalization and Inequality
• Modernize, copy, and prosper?
o As most colonies gained independence they were expected to
follow the same pathway as their colonizers
o What was lacking was just time, assumption that they had been
set on the right