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ANT208 Test 1 Defintions.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Sellen

PRIMARY TERMS Term Definition Illness A condition of poor health perceived or felt by and individual -Subjective experience of symptoms and suffering -Understanding between patient and doctor Sickness A socially recognized disease associated with specific “sick role” Biomedicine The form of medicine that developed out of the scientific th tradition in 18 -century Europe. It views disease as having a unique biological cause with the body. Disease A physiological alteration that impairs function in some way Health A state of complete social, psychological and physical well-being -Varies across cultures Lactose intolerance The inability to digest lactose products such as milk Diagnosis The identification of the nature of an illness or other problem by examination of the symptoms Evolutionary Medicine the scientific study of human health integrated with evolutionary theory Evolution (2 definitions) -Change in the composition of a population -Decent with modification Natural Selection the gradual, non-random process by which biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction of their bearers. Fitness Survival + Reproduction Adaptation Traits that confer some survival or reproductive advantage Reproductive Success The number of fertile offspring produced by an individual Tinbergen’s four -What is the mechanism? – Proximate cause questions -How does it develop over life course? – Ontogeny -What is the fitness function? – Selected Adaptation How did it evolve? – Ultimate cause Ontogeny The origin and development of an organism Speciation The creation of a new species Constraint Evolutionary limits Gene (2 defintions) -Any portion of chromosomal material that potentially lasts for enough generations to serve as a unit of natural selection -A DNA segment that contributes to phenotype/function Genotype The combination of the haplotypes of any pair of chromosomes Proteome The entire complement of proteins that is or can be expressed by a cell, SNP A single-based substitution of one nucleotide for another Recombination Homologous chromosomes exchange segments of DNA sequence, thereby creating new allele combinations Developmental Plasticity Refers to a set of processes which act in early development and which influence the phenotype for the rest of the life Epigenesis Aristotle believed that a new human being arose from the mixture of male and female elements: the female contributed menstrual blood as the building material from which the male semen generated the new form Reaction norm The range of phenotypes included in response to variation in a component of the developmental environment Canalization A canalized trait is one that has self-correcting mechanism to ensure that a relatively narrowly defined phenotypic outcome develops -Consistency in phenotypic outcome Critical windows of A signal for some sort of physiological growth or change development must occur in a certain time frame of an organisms life, otherwise, it will not happen after that period Gene Expression  conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein Intergenerational effect Life history Optimized allocation of limited resources between growth, tissue repair, and reproduction Trade-off Having a disadvantage for one thing in order to benefit for another thing Senescence A biological process in which following a phase of development and attainment of maximal reproductive potential, there is an age-associated physiological degeneration which adversely affects vitality and function Pleiotropy One gene having multiple effects Thrifty genotype Proposes that there are alleles which were selected because they were advantages during the shorter lives of our ancestors but which have now become disadvantageous now that we live much longer Allometry The study of functions and components of the body that are not a linear function of body size Infancy Rapid growth, but slows down in second and third years -Maternal milk is the primary source of nutrition Childhood Constant growth until about 7 years of age -Onset of adrenal androgen production (adrenarche) occurs Juvenile Prepubertal individuals who are no longer necessarily dependent on their mothers for survival Puberty The physical manifestation of adolescence and is characterized by a transient acceleration in growth for 2-3 years followed by a deceleration which ultimately leads to termination of linear growth with epiphyseal fusion of long bones Adolescence The period between the onset of biological maturation and full acceptance as an adult Adulthood The period where reproduction occurs Menopause The decrease in female fertility Neoteny The slowing down of the rate of development Heterochrony During development the timing of the appearance of a feature is altered in relation to others
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