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ANT208 Test 2 Defintions.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Sellen

Term Definition Evolutionary strategy Adaptive Radiation -A term used to reflect an evolutionary phenomenon where there is the rapid appearance of multiple related species from a common precursor species, each taking a different ecological niche Hominins -Humans and their direct ancestors Allometry -The study of functions and components of the body that are not a linear function of body size Predicted brain size Cultural inheritance -With the development of the capacity to communicate, observe, and learn come the potential for a different mode of inter- individual and inter-generational transmission of information. Nutritional adaptation -Adapting to local nutritional opportunities has led to the evolution of related genetic differences among the populations of the world Metabolic adaptation Adipose tissue -A kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy; it also cushions and insulates vital organs Thrifty genotype hypothesis -Proposes that there are alleles which were selected because they were advantages during the shorter lives of our ancestors but which have now become disadvantageous now that we live much longer Menarche -The first occurrence of menstruation Secular trend -A long-term historical trend in some phenomenon. Increases in height and weight over the 20 century are examples. Metabolic syndrome/diseases -A cluster of metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, high blood levels of triglycerides, low blood levels of HDL-cholesterol, and obesity, that increase the risk of chronic diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, “adult onset” -A disease often found along with obesity, in which levels of sugar in the blood are too high -Type II is derived from altered cellular response to insulin, usually manageable/reversible Insulin resistance -In the context of continual access to abundant quantities of food, the quick trigger of insulin is highly detrimental, as individuals continually produce high levels of insulin, leading to insulin resistance among target cells Cardiovascular disease (CVD) -Includes any dysfunction in the heart or circulatory system, the most common being atherosclerosis Obesity -Currently, a BMI over 30 is considered obese Overweight -Currently, a BMI between 25-29.9 is considered overweight Neolithic -The time when the mobility of hunter- gather bands was gradually replaced by settled village life and humans began to domesticate and exploit plants and animals Nutrition transition -A set of changes in diet and lifestyle -E.g. – hunting  agriculture Appetite -The desire to eat food, felt as hunger. Appetite exists in all higher life-forms, and serves to regulate adequate energy intake to maintain metabolic needs. It is regulated by a close interplay between the digestive tract, adipose tissue and the brain. Thrifty genes -Diseases arise through patterns of inherited genes which may have been previously advantageous in human evolution but which are now disadvantageous Dairying -The business of producing, storing, and distributing milk and its products Vulnerable populations -Pregnant females, fetuses, human in vitro fertilization, prisoners, the cognitively impaired. Maladaptive -Not providing adequate or appropriate adjustment to the environment or situation Metabolic programming Immunity -The ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by the action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells Synergism -The working together of two things to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects Placenta -Produces hormone similar to growth hormone, the production of which increases throughout pregnancy, it functions to make glucose more available to the fetus, and later enhances milk production Caesarean section -The delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus Fetal Hypoxia -Refers to low levels of oxygen during fetal development, which can cause brain damage. Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause fetal hypoxia. Postpartum depression -Depression suffered by a mother following childbirth, typically arising from the combinat
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