Study Guides (248,411)
Canada (121,516)
Anthropology (255)
ANT208H1 (23)
Midterm

ANT208 Test 4 Defintions.docx

4 Pages
109 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT208H1
Professor
Dan Sellen
Semester
Fall

Description
Term Definition Infectious disease -A disease caused by a microorganism that provokes an immune response in the host, and that can be passed to another host. Identified by Koch’s postulates. Koch’s Postulates -The foundation of the germ theory of disease, used to establish whether a disease is caused by a microorganism. They are: The pathogen must be found in all individuals with the disease; the organism must be isolated and grown in pure culture; the culture should cause the disease when introduced into another healthy individual; the pathogen can be isolated from the second individual and grown in a culture. Pathogen -A microorganism that causes disease in a host. Probiotic -Helpful microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Parasites -Microorganisms that make use of the resources of other individuals, usually of a different, larger bodied species. Commensals -relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits but the other is unaffected Virulence -A pathogen’s ability to make a host sick; can be due to high reproduction rate of the pathogen, its ability to produce a toxin, or other attributes. Vector -Any intermediate species/material that can take a pathogen from on host to the next. IgE -One of the classes of antibodies that respond to helminth injections. IgE appears to be involved in allergies and asthma Immune Response -The reaction of the cells and fluids of the body to the presence of a substance that is not recognized as a constituent of the body itself Innate Immune System -An evolutionarily old part of the immune system that involves recognition of some common patterns rather than specific characteristics of pathogens. -Fast, no memory, phagocytes, broad recognition Adaptive Immune System -A part of the immune system found only in vertebrates. It involves recognition of specific pathogen characteristics. -Slow, memory, lymphocytes, high specificity Lymphocytes (B- and T-) White blood cells, which are key cells of the immune system -B – effective against extracellular infection -T – effective against intracellular infection Allergen -Antigens that are not pathogenic Allergies -An immune response to antigens that are not, in and of themselves, deleterious. Characterized by the release of IgE and inflammation of epithelial cells of the skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tracks. Asthma -Constriction, inflammation, or both, of the bronchia of the lungs, usually resulting from an allergic reaction Hygiene Hypothesis -A hypothesis developed to explain the rise in allergies in industrialized countries. Suggests that improvements in hygiene have resulted in less exposure to pathogens in childhood, which alters the development of the immune system in ways that cause it to respond inappropriately to non-pathogenic antigens. Helminth Hypothesis -A hypothesis developed to explain the link between IgE and allergy. Suggests that reduced exposure to helminths results in IgE responding to non-pathogenic antigens with properties similar to those of helminths. Emerging infectious disease -Diseases of infectious origin whose incidence in humans has increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future. Resurging infectious disease -Infectious diseases whose prevalence had declined, but is now increased or likely to increase. Epidemiological transition -The process whereby major communicable diseases and conditions of poverty (e.g. malnutrition) are progressively replaced by non-communicable diseases such as cancers and CVD Antibiotic resistance -When bacterial species are not negatively affected by antibiotics. Stressor -Challenges to health and well-being, survival and reproduction, or anything that generates a physiological stress response. Stress response -The way that your physiology is altered when you are exposed to or imagine a stressor. Theory of mind -An analytical construct to describe how animals and humans interpret the mental state and intentionality of others within the species. Autoimmune disease -Diseases in which the immune system attacks the body’s own cells, as if mistaking them for non-self pathogens Income disparity -Inequality of income Lifestyle incongruity -Inconsistency between one’s lifestyle and one’s education/occupation, such that the status that goes along with a particular lifestyle is higher than what
More Less

Related notes for ANT208H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit