ANT355Y1 Final Exam Review.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
David Begun

Final Exam Questions Page 1 1. What is the major trend for Homo? There is a increase in the size of the brain and a decrease in the size of the jaw and teeth 2. What is the time scale for Homo? Explain the general trends and time for each species Homo rudolfensis 2.5 .8 MA Homo habilis 2.5 1.5 MA Homo ergaster 1.7 1.5 MA Homo erectus 1.8 0.05 MA Homo floresiensis 18 KA Homo heidelbergensis 0.7 0.25 MA Homo neanderthalensis 0.2 0.028 MA Homo sapiens 0.2 present H. rudolfensis and H. habilis are the earliest members of the genus Homo H. erectus first appeared in Asia and not in Africa, and lived a very long time H. floresiensis is from a remote island from Indonesia, and appeared at the same time people were painting caves in other parts of the world H. neanderthalensis is thought to be the descendant of H. heidelbergensis, however, it appears at the same time at H. sapiens, therefore they are not our ancestor, but our sister taxa 3. Describe Early Homo including the time, site locations, habitat, and any additional facts 2.5 1.8 MA East Africa o Kobi Fora (East Turkana), Kenya o Hadar, Ethiopia o Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania South Africa o Sterkfontein West Malawi Early stone tools (A. garhi or P. robustus) o Possibly, the first recognizable stone tools occur with early Homo Commonly found in river margin settings (more ecologically diverse, larger ranges, hunting or scavenging, or more open country) o River margin settings access to river resources, more open country, able to travel long distances, protection due to cover of trees Found in different stratigraphy, same region and where Australopithecus used to live Hunting exploitation of animals for meat, which is not seen with Australopithecus, probably as a result of larger brains because meat has more nutrient Scavenging steering or diverting predators away from fresh meat so early Homo can steal it 4. What are the general features or characteristics of Early H. rudolfensis and describe how it differs from Australopithecus? 2.5 MA; Uraha, Malawi Features long molars, small premolars, deep mandibles, proportionate anterior teeth Small premolars compared to Australopithecus, and relatively small P4 size Deep mandibles depth of mandibles can infer between H. rudolfensis and robust Australopithecus; the size of the mandible is almost as big as Australopithecus, which others might have a hard time considering it as early Homo; mandibles in H. rudolfensis are elongated in cross section and not round like in Australopithecus H. rudolfensis unable to withstand twisting movements which Australopithecus can 5. What are the general features or characteristics of Early H. habilis and describe how it differs from A. afarensis? 2.5 MA; a palate from Hadar, Ethiopia at 2.3 MA Features in comparison to A. afarensis the palate, and palate from Hadar, where H. habilis has a shorter, more reduced prognathism (face is getting smaller), shorter extension from the maxillary sinus to incisors in habilis but longer extension from maxillary sinus to incisors in A. afarensis, the molars are relatively similar, canines are smaller then A. afarensis, reduced mastication, vertically oriented 6. What is the importance of the earliest stone tools from Hadar? Tools have scars which show that they were chipped off purposefully, and used for processing food e.g. Animal bones found with marks on regions where muscles attach, also plants, especially hard plants in order to tenderize them The stone tools at Hadar are similar to those Chimpanzees use, however, researchers believe that stone tools at Hadar are advanced since they have been re-shaped 7. What are the general features or characteristics of H. rudolfensis and describe how it differs from Australopithecus? Features in comparison to Australopithecus tall forehead, elongated from front to back, and broader from side to side, considerably larger brain (750-780cc) General features: huge face, flat face, very orthognathic, teeth were large (due to analyzing teeth roots) & proportionate, strongly developed supraorbital tori 8. Compare and Contrast H. rudolfensis and K. platyops, and what do researchers believe about their relationship? H. rudolfensis and K. platyops are similar in that they are both orthognathic, however they are different in terms of brain size, where H. rudolfensis has larger brain size then K. platyops Researchers believe that K. platyops that H. rudolfensis are related, and that K. platyops could be the ancestor of H. rudolfensis Note there is no correlation between intelligence & brain size within species, however there is correlation between species 9. What are the general features or characteristics of H. habilis and describe how it differs from A. afarensis? Features orthognathic, globular at the back, elongated brain case Similar to the Hadar specimen (palate), however larger brains 530 750 cc, orthognathic, H. habilis maxilla is shorter and vertically oriented and maxilla of A. afarensis is longer and horizontally oriented; the smallest H. habilis brain overlaps or correlates with the largest Australopithecus brain 10. Why is the specimen OH6 important? Its a partial skeleton, the legs are long and the arms are short and they both similar to Lucy specimen, theres no duplication of parts, which implies that its a single individual; Australopithecine in details; Mosaic evolution not every part of the body evolves at the same time & rate 11. Using the features of H. habilis, contrast it with Australopithecus. Features larger, reorganized brains, smaller teeth, smaller jaws, reduced prognathism, basicranial flexion, cranial vault changes Larger, reorganized brains specific spots enlarged for language seen in habilis basis for development of language but does not mean they could speak, probably led to language development which is also tied to hand manipulation Smaller back teeth; smaller jaws which are biomechanically less robust Basicranial flexion refers to the bottom of the skull where it is more flexed in early homo and flatter in Australopithecines, probably due to reduced prognathism 12. Name a site of H. habilis and from and what other specimen is it similar to? Sterkfontein West, South Africa the date of this site is 1.5 2MA, and this site is similar to specimen AL 666-1 13. Compare H. rudolfensis and H. habilis. H. habilis small brain, small teeth, australopithecine like skeleton, orthognathic, small face H. rudolfensis face more later Homo-like, teeth in range of small Paranthropus, possibly modern skeleton, larger brains (530-750) 14. What are the main points of H. ergaster, H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and archaics of Africa?
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