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Final

This is a summary of the chapters that were to be read from the Curtis book. A few chapters are missing because they weren't that important to answer questions on the exam.


Department
Architecture Studies
Course Code
ARC131H1
Professor
Larry Wayne Richards
Study Guide
Final

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Chapter 3:
Focus on structure and function
Concern: might be too bland
oSullivan’s solution: cant rely on structure and function alone, need to have
highly abstracted historical or natural examples as well
Concrete:
oMalleable
oFireproof
oCheap
oSpanning power
Can be covered or left raw
“correct forms: rectangular, stripped and abstract
Auguste Perret
oCareful attention to proportion, detail and interval classicism without
overt use of the orders (strippedpilasters with cornice at the top)
oUsed concrete always rectangular shapes
Same with Tony Garnier introduced concrete for town planning
for industrial society
Perret and Wright influenced generation of thin planarity, overhanging
horizontality, geometrical simplicity
Freyssinet, Maillar and Berg parabolic shapes out of concrete vs. rectangular
Le Corbusier:
oEarly designs mix of Art Nouveau and Regionalist influences
oPerret learned basics of reinforced concrete and imbibed Viollet-le-
Duc’s ideas
oPeter Behrens new architecture must rest on idealization of types and
norms designed to serve needs of modern society and be in harmony w/
means of mass production
Chapter 4:
Arts and Crafts Ideals (England ) spun from Pugin, Ruskin and Morris
oMorris: when his ideals concerning integration of art and lifem craft and
utility transformed to allow for mechanization considered part of
modern architecture
Central idea: indigenous materials and usages were to be translate to good use by
the modern practitioner
Rusticity of Arts and Crafts couldn’t be too removed from gentility & urbanity of
middle class fuse building w/ gardens via pergolas and pathways
Lutyens (best creations of this type)
oClever collisions of classical and medieval fragments
oControlling sense of proportion
oCombo of axes and repeating geometrical motifs
oThemes in plan, elevation, volume
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Arts and crafts bold innovators of domestic design but still traditionalists
oAppreciation of what is natural
oArts and crafts to Germany (via Herman Musthesius) and French
Beaux-Arts to England
oIn Germany Arts and Crafts became industrial design
oWright drew from Arts and Crafts industrial design in North America
architecture of residential homes
oGreene Brothers (California) natural house buildings unify with
settings (porch half outside, half inside, plants etc.)
oStick and shingles style
oBernard Maybeck’s obsessive extreme of Craftsman’s Movements vs.
Irving Gill sobriety and broad simplicity
Chapter 6 (frank Lloyd wright Chicago wealthy clients):
International style: break away from eclectisim new style based on spatial
conception of intersecting planes and abstract masses then evolved based on
Dutch developments
Regionalist characters, Arts and Crafts allegiance preserving against
mechanization (use it only a little)
Worked for Louis Sullivan
Breakthrough building Winslow House 1893
oTripartite scheme (elm tree) rootedness yet capacity for growth and
change
His work included:
oAmple horizontal lines
oElegantly proportioned details
oBuilt in furniture
oOverhanging eaves
oBroad fireplace with finished with thin roman bricks
oStained glass windows changing light
oAxial control (combined w/ rotational/asymmetrical 
sliding/overlapping of planes intense rhythm pinwheel rotation of
space)
oPlastered smooth walls
oMono-materials, no ornaments that weren’t natural
oGeometric shapes / straight lines that were natural to machinery at work
oUsed concrete
Started off making really small spaces on rectangular lot got bigger as he
became more famous made transition from residential to commercial (ex.
Unitarian church)
Chapter 9 (Cubism, de Stijl and new conceptions of space)
Pre-war (1914) concepts like National Romanticism, Arts and Crafts and Regionalist
ideas still existed along with a bit of Art Nouveau to Futurism
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Mid 1920’s International modern movement (International Style) along with
Expressionism and Art Deco
oEvery architect had its own style in this period but for a short time in the late
1920’s they all agreed on a few concepts specific to that time period
Cubism and abstract art
De Stijt Shroeder House, Gerrit Reitveld, 1923
oRectangular smooth shape, bright primary colours (like Mondrian paintings),
intersecting planar walls to make it look like its hovering, no single axis or
simple symmetry, planes articulate b/c of thin lines of window mullions,
balcony railings and attached struts (coloured for crisp contrast)
oElementarianism like his furniture design
Chapter 10 (le Corbusier’s quest for ideal form)
1920’s Europe, Russia, (U.S) emergence of International Style
oRevolution of new forms: interlocking spaces, hovering volumes,
interpenetrating planes, machine age materials concrete, steel, glass
oExpressed polemic views and utopian sentiments
Corb’s thoughts: vision of ideal city, philosophy of nature, strong feeling for
tradition
20 yrs younger than FLW, generation younger than Hoffman and Perret, same age
as Gropius and Mies
Regionalist beginnings (decorative ornaments of Art Nouveau) taught to
conventionalize natural forms (make common natural things that most ppl look
over) and generate shape grammars based on few rules of transformation
1910 design for art school was just simple cubes and pyramid, unadorned
surfaces drew from Idealist tradition (stress on spiritual functions of art)
oFor him, geometry was symbolic medium for expressing higher truths
Work with Perret (Paris):
oWas introduced to reinforced concrete construction and tradition of
French Rationalist theory (stemming from Viollet-le-Duc)
oInvented Dom-ino skeleton use of cantilever (long projecting beams)
principle (later became central to his work)
Work with Behrens (Germany, 1910)
oGrasped necessity for alliance between art and machine types:
standard elements of design that could both be mass produced and were
useful to society also objet type
Inspired by Faguswerk and Werkbund Pavilion by Gropius
Voyage d’ Orient:
o1911, went to Italy, Greece and Asia Minor
oQuest for perennial values of architecture sketched incisive thumbnails
of them in his notebook to help him later pick out features
Particularly liked Parthenon, Athens compared it to machine,
liked site (view of both mountains and sea)
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