This is a summary of the chapters that were to be read from the Curtis book. A few chapters are missing because they weren't that important to answer questions on the exam.

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University of Toronto St. George
Architecture Studies
Larry Wayne Richards

Chapter 3: Focus on structure and function Concern: might be too bland o Sullivans solution: cant rely on structure and function alone, need to have highly abstracted historical or natural examples as well Concrete: o Malleable o Fireproof o Cheap o Spanning power Can be covered or left raw correct forms: rectangular, stripped and abstract Auguste Perret o Careful attention to proportion, detail and interval classicism without overt use of the orders (stripped pilasters with cornice at the top) o Used concrete always rectangular shapes Same with Tony Garnier introduced concrete for town planning for industrial society Perret and Wright influenced generation of thin planarity, overhanging horizontality, geometrical simplicity Freyssinet, Maillar and Berg parabolic shapes out of concrete vs. rectangular Le Corbusier: o Early designs mix of Art Nouveau and Regionalist influences o Perret learned basics of reinforced concrete and imbibed Viollet-le- Ducs ideas o Peter Behrens new architecture must rest on idealization of types and norms designed to serve needs of modern society and be in harmony w/ means of mass production Chapter 4: Arts and Crafts Ideals (England ) spun from Pugin, Ruskin and Morris o Morris: when his ideals concerning integration of art and lifem craft and utility transformed to allow for mechanization considered part of modern architecture Central idea: indigenous materials and usages were to be translate to good use by the modern practitioner Rusticity of Arts and Crafts couldnt be too removed from gentility & urbanity of middle class fuse building w/ gardens via pergolas and pathways Lutyens (best creations of this type) o Clever collisions of classical and medieval fragments o Controlling sense of proportion o Combo of axes and repeating geometrical motifs o Themes in plan, elevation, volume Arts and crafts bold innovators of domestic design but still traditionalists o Appreciation of what is natural o Arts and crafts to Germany (via Herman Musthesius) and French Beaux-Arts to England o In Germany Arts and Crafts became industrial design o Wright drew from Arts and Crafts industrial design in North America architecture of residential homes o Greene Brothers (California) natural house buildings unify with settings (porch half outside, half inside, plants etc.) o Stick and shingles style o Bernard Maybecks obsessive extreme of Craftsmans Movements vs. Irving Gill sobriety and broad simplicity Chapter 6 (frank Lloyd wright Chicago wealthy clients): International style: break away from eclectisim new style based on spatial conception of intersecting planes and abstract masses then evolved based on Dutch developments Regionalist characters, Arts and Crafts allegiance preserving against mechanization (use it only a little) Worked for Louis Sullivan Breakthrough building Winslow House 1893 o Tripartite scheme (elm tree) rootedness yet capacity for growth and change His work included: o Ample horizontal lines o Elegantly proportioned details o Built in furniture o Overhanging eaves o Broad fireplace with finished with thin roman bricks o Stained glass windows changing light o Axial control (combined w/ rotational/asymmetrical sliding/overlapping of planes intense rhythm pinwheel rotation of space) o Plastered smooth walls o Mono-materials, no ornaments that werent natural o Geometric shapes / straight lines that were natural to machinery at work o Used concrete Started off making really small spaces on rectangular lot got bigger as he became more famous made transition from residential to commercial (ex. Unitarian church) Chapter 9 (Cubism, de Stijl and new conceptions of space) Pre-war (1914) concepts like National Romanticism, Arts and Crafts and Regionalist ideas still existed along with a bit of Art Nouveau to Futurism Mid 1920s International modern movement (International Style) along with Expressionism and Art Deco o Every architect had its own style in this period but for a short time in the late 1920s they all agreed on a few concepts specific to that time period Cubism and abstract art De Stijt Shroeder House, Gerrit Reitveld, 1923 o Rectangular smooth shape, bright primary colours (like Mondrian paintings), intersecting planar walls to make it look like its hovering, no single axis or simple symmetry, planes articulate b/c of thin lines of window mullions, balcony railings and attached struts (coloured for crisp contrast) o Elementarianism like his furniture design Chapter 10 (le Corbusiers quest for ideal form) 1920s Europe, Russia, (U.S) emergence of International Style o Revolution of new forms: interlocking spaces, hovering volumes, interpenetrating planes, machine age materials concrete, steel, glass o Expressed polemic views and utopian sentiments Corbs thoughts: vision of ideal city, philosophy of nature, strong feeling for tradition 20 yrs younger than FLW, generation younger than Hoffman and Perret, same age as Gropius and Mies Regionalist beginnings (decorative ornaments of Art Nouveau) taught to conventionalize natural forms (make common natural things that most ppl look over) and generate shape grammars based on few rules of transformation 1910 design for art school was just simple cubes and pyramid, unadorned surfaces drew from Idealist tradition (stress on spiritual functions of art) o For him, geometry was symbolic medium for expressing higher truths Work with Perret (Paris): o Was introduced to reinforced concrete construction and tradition of French Rationalist theory (stemming from Viollet-le-Duc) o Invented Dom-ino skeleton use of cantilever (long projecting beams) principle (later became central to his work) Work with Behrens (Germany, 1910) o Grasped necessity for alliance between art and machine types: standard elements of design that could both be mass produced and were useful to society also objet type Inspired by Faguswerk and Werkbund Pavilion by Gropius Voyage d Orient: o 1911, went to Italy, Greece and Asia Minor o Quest for perennial values of architecture sketched incisive thumbnails of them in his notebook to help him later pick out features Particularly liked Parthenon, Athens compared it to machine, liked site (view of both mountains and sea) o Reveal principles of organization and relate plan shapes to sensuous experience of volumes in sequence in relation to setting later became part of his imagination o Liked classicism of construction and support of ruins in Italy but hated encrustations on them formed in Baroque period Switzerland o Started foundation of Jura Regionalist movement (unsuccessful) Combo of German and French ideas o Inspired by voyage incorporated learned ideas in following buildings: 1912: Maison Favre-Jacot La Chaux-de-Fonds 1916: Villa Schwob Paris (1917) o Ozenfant introduced to post-Cubist avant garde Futurist attitude BUT given geometrically disciplined visual form loved machines, concept of Golden Section and constant laws of perception Started painting with him, exhibited under name Purists After Cubism was title Called this because rejected bizarreness of Picasso and Braque and favored mathematical order and precision (calm intellectual control feeling of consolidation after war) explored tension between ordinariness and spirituality Rejected De Stijl non-objective art Purist paintings influenced architecture provided pure, precise, geometrical forms appropriate for machine age dissatisfied with eclectism, liked tradition Started magazine called The New Spirit (consolidation after upheaval of war years) Valued engineering objects (grain silos, cars, ships, factories, airplanes) transformed them into symbolic forms of art o Inspired to mass produce prototype houses (Maison Citrohan) like how car prototypes were produced Key features of Citrohan: Feeling of hovering in buildings (utopian city) Maison la Roche/ J
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