Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
UTSG (10,000)
ARC (40)

ARC132H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe, Rem Koolhaas, Gothic Architecture

Architecture Studies
Course Code
Zeynep Celik
Study Guide

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 17 pages of the document.
ARC132: Exam Practice Questions
1. Modern architecture has frequently been called “functionalist.” But functionalism is a
problematic concept with no clear definition. Architects, critics, and historians have used
the term “functionalist” to argue that a building’s form is strictly in accordance with its
structure, program, materials, or the financial demands of the client. Discuss the
examples below to explain how functionalism can be understood as a “myth” in modern
Confront myth of functionalism
Modern architecture is architecture that is functional
Functionalism important aspect of this lecture
Functionalism- idea that modern architecture should be determined by requirements of programs,
requirement of structure, requirement of materials and requirement of economy
There was a relationship between necessity between program form, structures, etc.
Architecture people rarely used the term functionalism
Where is this term coming from? Almost always used with retrospectively to label the modern
Mies Van der Rohe, Dominion Centre, Toronto, 1967-69
oMies was designing skyscrapers already when he was Germany (Glass Skyscraper,
oBecame reality from fantasy when he immigrated to US
o2 towers, 56 storeys and 46 storeys
ocontains a banking Pavilion
osteel skeletal and rational structure
ofaçade becomes a curtain wall and no longer contain the load of the building
overy clear separation between what is structural and not structural (steel and curtain wall)
ointeresting when you look at the corners (I-beam: steel element with a section that
resembles an I)
othere are I beams which are ornamental more than structural
omullions: vertical bar between panes of glass in a window
oChrysler Building, Seagram Building other examples of skyscrapers
oMaterial used: exposed steel, painted black, granite, green marble, glass (limited choice
of materials, minimalist)
oStructure: steel frame made of rectangular grid, simple structural logic
oImportance of use of grid
oStructures can be always seen as legible, clear and simple, no mistaking these structures
Universal Space 1953: nothing is hidden, nothing out of site, Mies structures are straightforward
and functional. Example of Mies articulating between what is structural and what is not (Example
Mies, Neue Notationalgalerie, Berlin)
Tectonics: Relating to the structure of the earths crust and the large processes which take place
within it. How does it stand up? How does it come together, what is its structural logic?
Frampton: tectonics is “art of joining”: definition is influenced by the term that was developed in
the 19th century by the architect by Zenger
Technology: use of tools and techniques to solve a practical problem
oTechnology always coexist with old ones
find more resources at
find more resources at

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

ARC132: Exam Practice Questions
Norman Foster, The Gherkin, 2004
Calatrava, Allen Lambert Galleria, Toronto, 1922
oAll buildings use sophisticated technologies
Parthenon, Athens, 447-432 BCE: Post-and lintel construction, peculiar property
of entasis, they constructed so well that in most cases that the gap between two
pieces of Greek temples could be a fraction of a millimetre (sophisticated
Roman arches: curved elements, arches existed before Romans and Roman took
arches then used them in basement to absorb lateral thrust
Construction with arches, vaults and domes:
Hagia Sophia: collapsed many times, interesting cause no one had ever seen a
building like this, built with trial and errors
Pointed Arches: can be narrow or wide, cathedrals came up with number of other
innovation to make pointed arches possible
Cathedral of Amiens, 1220: skeletal structure, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses:
putting wide buttresses outside of the walls but inside amazing light spaces
Inventions of structural technologies is not really confined to the modern period. Despite all of
the sophistication, its undeniable that something happened in 18 and 19th centuries
Marc- Antoine Laugier (monk), frontispiece, 18th century: female figure which is a muse of
architecture leaning against the discarded architectural fragments in this case capital of a forum
and all this ornamentation at the bottom. Pointing at a cupid like figure, columns, primitive hut,
the argument that was made about how architecture should model itself with architecture.
oApproved of Greek architecture and gothic architecture
oHe did not like pilasters: projected column which may or may not have a structural
Colum and plastered on the wall and be ornamental
oHe also hated renaissance
oHappened eve of French revolution
oProposed a neo classicism that came out of nature
oNature stands for order, nature is not just green stuff, nature is the realm of necessity (not
the structure comes out of the forst, but the nature of the wood columns can be supported
this way and no other way
oThis is the most rational structure imaginable and most natural one
oConclusion: a new found significance attached to free standing column
oOne architect that put Laugiers idea to consideration
J,- G Soufflot, Ste- Genevieve, Paris 1757-90 : post and lintel system, free
standing columns in the building, when it was constructed it was celebrated for
how clear and legible the building was, manifested structural clarity and free
standing. First time engineers created machines that compressed stones, math
formulas to find the the structural logic before the building was built. Emergence
of structural paradigm, made its own constructive principles, out presidential
example of a church where you could see everything at one, stereotomy:
Analytic thinking: building was seen as embodied Laugiers principles of
enlightenment thinking. Consisted of moral bounds with structural paradigm
emergence where they put iron inside stone, post lentil system was made possible
by a hidden system behind arches, a great deal of effort went into making this
building looking like a simple building with clear structure,
find more resources at
find more resources at

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

ARC132: Exam Practice Questions
Mies, Barcelona Pavilion: realized for the first time the separation of structural
elements form non structural elements that gave him the flexibility to create
partition wall because they were non structural, Grib steel structure gave him
freedom to create spatial arrangements. Not true because floor was supported by
brick walls and the partition were more structural like columns.
19th century saw the invention of new materials: cast iron, rolled steel, reinforced concrete,
concrete resist compression, steel resists tension, glass
onot only did structural invention increase,
otriggered by structure of society like division of labour
oCrystal Palace, Joseph Paxton, London, 1851: built for wold exhibition, important in
history of modernism, showcased achievements and designs, plan two volumes
intersecting, Paxtons design only applied to transportation construction, a composite
system of cast iron, wood and glass. Crystal palace fact: so much wood was used on the
ground floor that it was not transparent at all. They used cast iron to create a structure
(skeletal) orthogonal frame, structure collapsed but this fact was kept away from the
public. Open modular construction system, many of the materials were produced offsite
and builders that if they used conventional techniques of construction they would never
be done, it was very important to manage the materials and equipment that were on site
and first instance of managerial aspects of construction coming to the forefront
Emergence of the modern movement and the materials of glass and iron were the important
characteristic of architecture
oGideion started a dichotomy that was influential of modern architecture: reliance of
image in the buildings were not a direction of modern architecture but to follow the 19th
century engineers that came up with the system of atectonic and tectonic, split between
structure and ornament, split between necessity of building and unnecessary which
contributed the meaning of functionalism
oCharles Garnier, New Opera, 1862-75: Atectonic: excess image, ornament
oGallery of Machines, 1889: tectonic: necessity substance, structure
Viollet-le-Duc, Restoration of Chateau of Pierrefond, Oise, 1857-70 “QUOTES”
oHe based his thinking on scientists who made the claim that if he found one bone from an
extinct animal he could remodel it because very part of an organism is made by necessity
and therefore in every fragment there would be a part of that bone
Sullivan, the tall office Building, 1896: “form ever follows function, this is the law”
o“inorganic”- relatable to organism
owas also the one that designed buildings that the structural logic is not immediately
tectonics became an area of experimentation in the 20th century
oAugueste Perret, Garage Ponthieu, Paris, 1907: haunched beam column junctions were
used, used the most recent technology of reinforced concrete, model for Le Corbusier, the
façade has a rose window which is an element of gothic architecture
oAnatole de Baudot, Salle des Fetes, 1910: very elaborate ceiling plan like an English
gothic church
oAuguste Perrte, Notre Dame, Le Raincy, 1922: vaulted roof, new kind of gothic church
oFelix Candela, Los Manantiales Restaurant, xochimilco, Mexico, 1958: thin shell
concrete, structural logic
oUtzon, Sydney Opera House, 1973:
oFrei Otto, Munich Olympic Stadium, 1972: Lightweight tensile structure
oBuckminster Fuller, US pavilion, 1967: Geodesic dome,
find more resources at
find more resources at
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version