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JAV131H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Marshall Field'S Wholesale Store, William Le Baron Jenney, Willits House

Architecture Studies
Course Code
Hans Ibelings
Study Guide

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(philosopher) John Ruskin : 20th century
- believes art should serve a salutary social or spiritual purpose; improve society
William Morris (1838-96) - Morris and Co.
- major stimulus of A&C mvmt.
1880-1910: Arts & Crafts Movement (anti-industrial; radical)
-influenced Art Nouveau; fine traditional craftsmanship, artistic finish; folk infl.
Art Nouveau; Jugendstil (Industrialization&Urbanization vs. National)
- curved lines
(US) Frank Lloyd Wright (I)
- handcrafting, functionalism, pioneer of intl. modern mvmt., abstract
1800/1850/1900 onwads: Modern architecture
- elimination of ornament (uneccessary for function)
(EU) Adolf Loos (I)
- "Ornament is Crime", simple cuboid form; industrial skills & machines better fit Modernism
(US) Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-86)
[Marshall Field Wholesale Store, 1885-87] monumental mass and stability; elemental design
- still load-bearing; influenced later work of Chicago School - esp. Louis Sullivan & FLWright
CHICAGO 1871 The Great Fire - new architectural & urban planning techniques utilized
(US) William Le Baron Jenney(1832-1907)
[Home Insurance Building, 1884-85] proto-skyscraper, metal skeleton + elevator invention
(US) Louis Sullivan (1856-1924)
- attracted to Chicago opportunity from Boston, joined by engineering specialist Dane Dankmar
[Alder and Sullivan Auditorium, 1889] [Wainwright Building, 1890] skyscraper
[Guaranty Trust (Prudential) Building, 1894-5] verticality, terracotta (fired clay)
- axiom: "Form follows Function" from "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered" (1896)
CHICAGO School's vitality maintained into first decade of 20th century, but NY leading
Prairie Style by FLW
[Ward Willits House, 1902-03] predominant horizontal, flat landscape, earth tones, harmonious
- drawn to rational, structural interpretation (Eugène-E Viollet-le-Duc), and Japanese
- spiritual and psychological centre of house (Hearth), low ceilings, intimacy, suitable habitat
[Robie House, 1909] rood cantilevers, long bricks, custom interior
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