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1What are the characteristics of Ecole des Beaux Arts architectureBeaux Arts architecture was an elaborate style that was taught at the cole des BeauxArts in Paris and references classical elements of Greek and Roman architecture It favoured order symmetry grandiosity and ornamentation and can be seen in such iconic buildings as the Hockey Hall of Fame and Union Station in Toronto and Grand Central Terminal and the New York Public Library in New York City as well as the Vanderbilt Marble House by Richard Morris Hunt who graduated from the cole in Rhode Island History The American Beaux Arts movement flourished between 1876 and 1930 and incorporated new domestic technology and modern floor plans at the same time that it incorporated a range of revival styles to embellish homes with historic detailThe postCivil War period led to a rapidly growing economy and many private fortunes made Wealthy homeowners built lavish estates in which specific motifs were borrowed from historic European stylesAt the time the most prestigious architectural school was the cole des BeauxArts in Paris Homeowners employed academically trained architects and cole alumni to design their homesWhat to Look For Classical Details Such as balustrades pilasters balconies columns sculpture and other artworkSymmetry The Beaux Arts design favoured symmetry for its facadesArches Windows and doors often feature arches Wide open archways link halls and main living spacesRoofs Beaux Arts buildings typically feature a flat roofConstruction Usually made from stoneWalls Mouldings that divided walls into sections were typical of Beaux Arts interiorsFloors The most common flooring material is wood especially oak parquet Border motifs tend to derive from period sources Marble foyer or hallway floors in alternating black and white squares are common in a range of revival stylesRenaissance Georgian or ColonialIn French the term beaux arts means fine arts or beautiful arts Based on ideas taught at the legendary cole des BeauxArts in Paris the Beaux Arts style flourished between 1885 and 1920Beaux Arts architecture Historical and eclectic design on a monumental scale as taught at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris in the 19th centDictionary of Architecture and Construction Cyril M Harris ed McGraw Hill 1975 p 48Beaux Arts buildings have many of these featuresMassive and grandioseConstructed with stoneBalustradesBalconiesColumnsCornicesPilastersTriangular pedimentsLavish decorations swags medallions flowers and shieldsGrand stairwayLarge archesSymmetrical faadeFamous Beaux Arts BuildingsParis Opra FranceWhat were the reactions to the use of iron in architectureDefinition Castiron architecture was a popular type of building design used throughout the world in the mid1800s Its popularity was due in part to its time and costeffectivenessa regal exterior facade could be massproduced inexpensively with cast iron Entire structures could be prefabricated and shipped around the world as portable iron houses Cast iron was used in both commercial buildings and private residencesWhat is the difference between cast iron and wrought ironIron is a soft natural element in our environment Elements like carbon can be added to iron to create other compounds including steel The properties and uses of iron change as different element proportions are combined with various heat intensitiesWrought iron has a low carbon content which makes it pliable when heated in a forgeit is easily wrought or worked on by a hammer to shape it A type of wrought iron called puddled iron was used to construct the Eiffel Tower Cast iron on the other hand has a higher carbon content which allows it to liquify at high temperatures The liquid iron can be cast or poured into a prefabricated mold When the cast iron is cooled it hardens The mold is removed and the cast iron has taken the shape of the mold Molds can be reused so cast iron building modules can also be mass produced unlike 19th century hammered wrought ironExamplesThe National Trust of Australia owns three Portable Iron Houses imported from England in the 19th century and open to the publicThe neoclassical dome of the US CapitolThe Crystal Palace 185154 an enormous construction of iron and glass seemed to many one of the great wonders of the modern worldand to others a monstrosity Although it seemed to offer the promise of a new era of iron and glass buildings it had surprisingly little effect on architects and architecture According to J Mordaunt CrookThe Crystal Palace 18514 seemed to lie outside the world of architecture outside even the world of engineering The criteria by which it might be judged still awaited formulation In
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