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FAH309 Midterm Notes

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B Ewald

FAH309City of RomeLecture 2 General Topography of RomeoRome located in the Latium region 20 km inland from the mouth of the TiberoLocated on an old trade route between Latium Etruria CampaniaoTosci in Tuscany Greek settlements in the south oRoma derived from the name of an aristocratic Etruscan Tuscan familyimplies Etruscan influenceChronological Outline and Some Key Dateso753 BCELegendary foundation of Romeo753509 BCERegal Periodo5093127 BCERepublican Periodo27 BCE476 CEImperial Period27 BCEAugustus Octavian becomes the first emperor64 ADGreat Fire under Nero271275 ADbuilding of the Aurelianic Walls325 ADConstantine first Christian emperor transfers the capital of the empire to the East by founding Constantinopleweakens theimportance of RomeAccording to Varro the seven hills that comprised Rome areoCapitolineoEsquilineoPalatineoViminaloAventineoQuirinaloCaeliusThe number of hills are arbitrarythey are all part of the same rangethEarly Rome in the 6 c BCE may not have had a wall but rather a number of fortified hillsTiber inundates the area around ithad to be drained in order to set up settlementsoChanges to topography is to address settlement issuesCapitoline HilloArx citadelplace of augury northern side of the hilloCapitolium Foundations of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus MaximusTemple the center of Roman State religion and politicsDedicated 509 BCE first year of the RepublicVery large oriented to the south stone columns three cellas housing the cult statues of Jupiter Juno and Minerva Sibylline books kept here Burned down and rebuilt several timeskeeping the same foundations and the same planPediment crammed with statues South end of the Capitoline is called Capitoliumreserved exclusively for religious purposes centre of the State cult destination of the military triumph processionsoMons Tarpeiuswhere criminals are thrown off execution siteAlso known as Tarpeian RockSteep cliff off the southern summit of the Capitoline oName derived from caput headoModernday piazza on the site of the little valley onnear the CapitolineoNatural fortress Smallest of Romes hillsoRomulus sanctuary to attract foreign refugeesPalatine HilloIron age hutsththOval plan wattle and daub reed roof 98 c BCEHouse of Romulusthe hut in which the twins were raised and were the omen of the passage of the birds were read constantly maintained by thpriests still existed supposedly till the 4 c ADoImperial palacesoControl of the Tiber traffic tradeoImpaccording to legend this is where Rome beganoRemoval of the Velia under Mussolini changing the geography of the areaoDomus FlaviaBuilt between 8192 AD by DomitianoDomus AugustanaoSeveran extensionsoPlace where Romulus founded RomeoHill synonymous with palacespalatialPrestigious political figures resided here eg the Gracchi Crassus M AntonyoLupercalcave where Remus and Romulus were found by the shewolf certain ritual activities of the Lupercalia were celebrated thereForum RomanumoArea directly in front of the ColiseumoPoliticaleconomic centre of the citythBy the 5 c BC it was the political constitutional and symbolic centre of the Republican citystateGeneral purpose open public space for political assemblies committee and meetings lawsuits public funerals and games and public feastsoAdmin buildings located there Ritualceremonial events take place there
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