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Exam Study Notes - Lectures 6 to 12

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University of Toronto St. George
B Ewald

FAH207 - Greece and Roman Art-Architecture Final Exam Study Notes (12 April 2011) Lecture Six - Eight: Greek Ceramics and Vase Painting from Geometric to Hellenistic 02172011 Greek Pottery Ceramics is derived from the Greek word for clay (keramos), potters were called Kerameus and, in Athens, were centralized around the Kerameikos (outside the city walls) Quality of the clay and firing control (three stage process) o Oxidizing phase (pottery stacks, heated up to 800 degrees with the pottery turning red) o Reducing phase (no oxygen, temperature increased to 950 with pottery turning black) o Oxidizing phase (kiln cooled completely and the pottery turned back to red with the parts painted by the black slip remaining a glossy black) Sometimes used real names (Exekias, Euthymides, Euphronios); named after the potters they worked with (Amasis painter, Andokides painter); named after where the vase was found or kept (Berlin painter); named after the subject they painted (Pan painter, Penthesileias painter) Types of vases: o Amphora (two-handled narrow vase with skinny neck, storage and transportation) o Krater (large two-handled vase used for mixing water and wine) o Hydria (three-handled, used for carrying water) o Psykter (bulbous body set on a small, narrow neck used in symposia) o Kylix (broad cup with shallow body raised on a stem with two-handled sides) o Skyphos (two-handled deep wine cup on a low-flanged base) o Lekythos (long and narrow with single handle on neck, used for storing olive oil) ProtoGeometric (1000 - 900 BCE) The only surviving material from the ProtoGeometric period is pottery, with Mycenaean shapes and decorations applied in few geometric patternslines applied with a multiple brush Geometric (900-700 BCE) Greater prosperity and trade in the polis of Greece, with re-establishment of contacts to the Near East and the adoption of themes-motifs from weaving Continuous and repetitive decorative bands (meanders, zigzags, triangles, etc) Reducing all natural forms into a series of definable geometric shapespatterns (analysis and conception of nature to the Greek artist) Clarity and legibility in distinguishing the constituent parts of the body (angular- triangular) and between the types of figures represented rather than pictorial verisimilitude Desire for reason, logic and hierarchy (structure) amongst the aristocratic elite who were the patrons of the artist and the chief market for the early goods (used by the elite to reinforce supremacy) Proliferation of literal figurative scenes (Homeric) were developed during the late Geometric as a aristocratic reaction to incipient social instability in the 8 century Geometric Amphora from Dipylon Cemetery, Athens (c. 750 BCE) Large dimensioned (1.55 metres tall) meant it was used as a grave marker Amphora (storage and household duties) was associated with the female sphere
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