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ALEA Lecture #3 Space 2013.doc

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Department
Art
Course
FAH230H1
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

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The Artistic Landscape of East Asia: Technology Lecture #3, January 21, 2013. Slide #1 – Title Slide #2 – *****Numbering of slides in ppt does not correspond to numbers in lecture notes from this point forward **** Slide #3 – Pop Quiz L: Late Shang ding tripod, China. What is this object called? What is its putative decoration called? Where was it made? From what? When? Slide #4 -- Pop Quiz C: Swords, halberd, spear, mirror, tubular beads, and magatama jewel from Yoshitake Takagi, Fukuoka, Yayoi period, 2nd cent. BCE, Japan. What are these objects? Where are they from? What are they made of? When? Why are they significant? Slide #5 -- Pop Quiz L: Bronze mirror with geometric patterns and two off Center handles, late Bronze Age, ca. 300 BCE, Korea. True or False: This object was made in Korea during the Iron Age. If false, why? Slide #6 -- East Asia in the Bronze Age C: Map with Shang bronze, Korea mirror, Japanese bell, Vietnamese drum What is space? OED: “Linear distance; interval between two or more points or objects.” 1390 GOWER Conf. III. 107 Astronomie..makth a man have knowlechinge Of Sterres..And what betwen hem is of space. Jennifer Purtle Page 1 2/7/2014 Superficial extent or area; also, extent in three dimensions. 1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) I. 51 Also Affrica in his kynde ha lasse space. Extent or area sufficient for some purpose; room. Also const. to with inf. c1374 CHAUCER Troylus I. 714 Certeynly no more hard grace May sit on me, for why? there is no space. Mitsuo Inoue, “The Preeminence of Material Objects,” Space in Japanese Architecture, Hiroshi Watanabe, trans., 7-12. How do pillars create space? Ideas here: Do you like Inoue? [Since this is a class on East Asian Art, I have tried to avoid the theoretical models of Dead White Men as much as possible, to consider what contemporary thinkers writing within the tradition bring to questions of East Asia, as well as those of more universal relevance.] The idea of East Asia in the Bronze Age is to me a compelling one. I was only taught works of the period through the lens of national narratives – as Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese. As a result, I am fascinated by the space opened up by the diffusion or co-independent origination of bronze technology. This presence of bronze, and the forms it takes – when similar and when different – begin to elucidate the larger patterns of cultural transmission and values in the area we now think of as East Asia. Jennifer Purtle Page 2 2/7/2014 Types of space Slide #7 -- Space and Bronze Vessels L: Map of Shang state with tripod at center; Late Shang ding tripod, China. R: Map of Zhou state with bronze toward East; Marquis Kang gui 康康康 (gui = ritual vessel for offering grain), early Western Zhou period (Western Zhou dates =1050-771 BCE), China. Political space: Bronze vessels in their earliest uses – that is, in the service of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou states – built political space. The tale of the Nine Tripods, constructed from the metal of the Nine Provinces –is, as I have attempted to show at left, about using bronze to create the space of a state, literally/materially as well as figuratively. Similarly, at the transition of Shang to Zhou dynasties, bronze created the space of the new Zhou state; perhaps more accurately, bronze created the space of dynastic transition. King Wu of the Zhou overthrew the Shang, and divided his new territories into eastern and Western domains. The eastern lands were the ancient Shang state; the Western lands, those held by the Zhou during Shang times. In the east, King Wu installed Wu Geng, a descendant of the Shang royal family, and three of his own brothers. By installing a mamber of the Shang royal family as partial ruler of a domain, King Wu established a foundation, lineage through which Shang ritual sacrifice could be perpetuated to aid the Zhou royal family and the Zhou state. Now, under Zhou rule, however, bronzes began to speak, and to concete political reality. The bronze at right, the Kang hou gui, was producedin the aftermath of rebellion in the eastern counties ruled by Wu Geng; or rather, by the incomplete conquest of these areas by the Zhou. The bronze, which bears an inscription on its interior describes the attacks on the Shang, and then records that the Marquis of Kang, that is Kang hou in Chinese, was assigned a territory called Wei (W-E-I). A relative of the Marquis of Kang, who held the office of Land Tax Supervisor (situ) was associated with the Marquis of Kang’s rule, and was instrumental in the casting of the vessel. Jennifer Purtle Page 3 2/7/2014 Slide #8 -- Space and Bronze Vessels L: Bronze Vessel Types R: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE If bronzes create political space, as in the tale of the Nine Tripods, and in inscriptions like the one on the Marquis of Kang gui vessel, are there other ways that bronzes –like other artifacts -- create space on a more human scale? How might that work? Slide #9 – Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀) Anyone have a look at the Yili reading??? Can you characterize the text? Ritual, social space One of the hardest things for us to imagine is what people did with the things that we now excavate from tombs. We are fortunate, however, to have three surviving etiquette books from the late Zhou period. There is a brief mention of these in Thorp and Vinograd, on p. 109, but they do not really explain why these books are interesting. Etiquette books provide direction for how to comport one’s self at life moments of transition. We use them now to arrange weddings, funerals, and formal dinners. What etiquette books do that makes them interesting to art historians and archaeologists is they tell us now what people did. In other words, while material remains show us what people had, etiquette books tells us how, in an ideal world, people used those things to perform ritual. Of the three extant etiquette books, the Yili, was intended as an encyclopedia of ritual action for the shi 儀 class – upper-middle class of the Zhou-era. While the Yili does not provide insight into the most elite practices, it does have the most comprehensive coverage of ritual life. Indeed, the Yili begins to suggest how ritual life was conducted, how members of the shi class used things to perform rituals, how they made space through their own actions and through the deployment of vessels and objects. What follows is a speculative reconstruction of the opening moments of the Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Office. We do not know exactly what the building looked like – I have used a Shang-Western Zhou transitional structure. We also do not know if the shi class used much –if any—bronze; they may have used ceramic entirely. For the sake of convenience, and speculating that their rituals were contiguous with those of richer, more elite bronze users, I have used bronze vessel types as appropriate. Be forewarned – this is historical imagining, not hard science! Jennifer Purtle Page 4 2/7/2014 Slide #10– Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). I quote from the Yili (p. 106), “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer: Setting out the Viands”: “In the ceremonial connected with the sacrifices of repose for the soul of an ordinary officer a young pig is presented as the food offering. One half of it is cooked outside the temple door and to the right side, the cooking stove facing east.” Slide #11– Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). “The stoves for the fish and game follow this, and are graded from the north.” Slide #12 – Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). “The cooking-stove for the grain is set at the foot of the east outer wall, and faces westward.” Slide #13 – Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). “The used water jar is set to the southwest of the Western steps…” Slide #14 – Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). “With the water to the west of it… Jennifer Purtle Page 5 2/7/2014 Slide #15: Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). “And a cup basket to the east.” (Yellow circle). Slide #16: Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). “The wine holder is set under the North wall of the room and opposite the door. It consists of two jars, holding must and wine respectively, the wine being to the east.” Slide #17: Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). “They are not provided with stands, but are covered with coarse cloth (brown shape), and ladles are set on them with their handles to the south.” [I had nothing to use as ladles, so you’ll have to imagine those!] Slide #18: Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). “A Plain body-rest and rush mat are set at the foot of the west inner wall.” (Brown shape) You’ll have to imagine this next part entirely: “Rushes, 5 inches long, and bound in bundles, are provided for laying the offerings on. These are placed in a basket and set out on top of the west cupboard.” More to imagine: “A pair of wooden holders containing pickled mallows and snail hash are set out to the east of the west pillar, the has being to the west.” Jennifer Purtle Page 6 2/7/2014 Slide #19: Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). Then: “A tureen of vegetable broth succeeds these.” No images: “Two holders, which are to be offered to the liturgist before being laid before the personator of the deceased, succeed these, and four wicker baskets follow them, graded from the north.” Slide #20 -- Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). “Two pots of glutinous and panciled millet respectively are set out between the steps, graded from the north, and are covered with a rush mat.” (no mat). “A ewer of water is set in the basin, with its spout to the south, and these are placed to the south of the west steps, with a basket of towels to the east of them.” Slide #21 – Space and Bronze Vessels C: Late Shang, Early Western Zhou courtyard house, ca. 1100 BCE, label: Beginning of “Sacrifices of Repose for an Ordinary Officer,” from The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial (Yili, 儀儀). “Three tripods are set out to the right side of the door and outside it. They face north, and are graded from the north. The poles and covers are set with them.” “The ladles and meat-stands are set to the west of the west gate house.” “The stand of roasted delicacies is set in the inner west gate house, with its outer edge south.” From this point, the Yili tells what happens when the guests come. Jennifer Purtle Page 7 2/7/2014 Slide #22– The Space of Bronze Vessels in the Warring States Period C: Map, with inset images of th L: Water basin (pan 康) and wine vessel (zun XXX), early 5 cent. BCE, Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, ca. 433 BCE. R: Chime of bells (bianzhong XXX 康), Eastern Zhou, State of Chu, Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, ca. 433 BCE. Material, economic, monetary space: A map of China in the sixth century BCE would show a tiny and impotent kingdom of Zhou surrounded by powerful principalities constantly forming and breaking alliances with each other. These states submitted to the royal house only on matters of legitimacy and inheritance. In the north, northern states kept non-ethnic “Chinese” from sacking their states; Philosophy flourished in the northeast, and southern cultures long subordinate to northern rule began to develop – especially that of Chu, the largest state in the south. Even as “China” breaks into regional polities, the making of bronze vessels continues to be important culturally and ritually. Indeed, the Warring States period, 475-221 BCE, was a period of great florescence – various states implemented social and economic reforms, including private land tenure. The intellectual culture of the period was vibrant – Confucius is its most famous product, followed by Mencius – men who theorized about the best ways to rule in a time of political disunion. Military culture expanded with the emergence of Iron-working technology, and the arts flourished – as they do in any heady period of social mobility and expanding money supply. [Shouldn’t say it, but sort of an extended Roaring Twenties of Ancient China.] Bronze traditionally a Northern craft specialty; centers of bronze production in the north. Division, in fact, sparks trade and exchange between states, as well as tribute. Political division thus spurs the diffusion and distribution of luxury goods. In particular, the development of bronze money provided as system of currency that transcended smaller political boundaries. Role of bronze inflected by their fungibility; whereas previously their value was determined by a state that controlled their means of production, and which generated their extrinsic value through ritual use, bronze now circulated on the strength of its intrinsic value – much like silverware in our own time. Jennifer Purtle Page 8 2/7/2014 Slide #23– The Space of Bronze Vessels in the Warring States Period L: Flask thianhu XXX), bronze inlaid with silver, Warring States period, late 4 to third cents. BCE. R: Water basin (pan 康) and wine vessel (zun XXX), early 5 cent. BCE, Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, ca. 433 BCE. What do you notice about these bronzes? How are they similar to or different from Shang and Zhou bronzes? How do they use the material of bronze similarly or differently than before? What adaptations have been made in the techniques with which they are produced? What is the material and economic space that Warring States bronzes inhabit, create? Lost wax casting method: how does it work? It makes possible the intricate detail, as does soldering. Silver and gold inlay: how does that work? Rise of silver and goldsmithing; use of vessels in dowries, for example. Gone is the high superstition of the Shang, and the high politics of the Zhou; very bourgeois sense of visible, displayable money in luxury goods in life, but also in death. In fact, the philosopher Guanzi (dates) wrote of the desirability of expanding consumption for funerals. “Lengthen the mourning period so as to occupy peoples’ time, and elaborate the funeral so as to spend their money. To have large pits for burial is to provide work for poor people; to have magnificent tombs is to provide work for artisans. To have inner and outer coffins is to encourage carpenters, and to have many pieces for the enshrouding is to encourage seamstresses.” Slide #24– The Space of Bronze Vessels in the Warring States Period L: Flask (bianhu XXX), bronze inlaid with silver, Warring States period, late 4 to third cents. BCE. R: Tripod (ding XXX) ritual vessel, bronze inlaid with silver. From Jincun, th rd Luoyang, Later Warring States period, 4 -3 cent. BCE. Formal space What is the material and economic space that Warring States bronzes inhabit, create? What characterizes the forms of Warring States bronzes? Archaism? Jennifer Purtle Page 9 2/7/2014 Slide #25– The Space of Bronze Vessels in the Warring States Period L: Flask (bianhu XXX), bronze inlaid with silver, Warring States period, late 4 to third cents. BCE. C: Bowl, earthenware decorated with slip and inlaid with glass paste. Late Warring States period. th rd R: Beaker with applied roundels, glass. Late Warring States period, 4 -3 cent. BCE. Bottom: Garment hook, Gilt bronze inlaid with Jade and glass, Late Warring States period. What is the late Warring States landscape of luxury goods? How do these pieces work as objects, to create visual effects? How do they create space? Slide #26– The Space of Bronze Vessels in the Warring States Period L: Flask (bianhu XXX), bronze inlaid with silver, Warring States period, late 4 to third cents. BCE. C: Bowl, earthenware decorated with slip and inlaid with glass paste. Late Warring States period. R: Beaker with applied roundels, glass. Late Warring States period, 4 -3 th rd cent. BCE. Lower Left: Garment hook, Gilt bronze inlaid with Jade and glass, Late Warring States period. Lower Center: Cult object or guardian in the form of a long tongued creature eating a snake, Chu culture, lacquer, excavated from Henan, Late Warring States period. Lower Right: Map of distribution of Money. How does each of these objects create space? Slide #27– The Space of Bronze Vessels in the Warring States Period
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