clear and detailed study guide for preparation for the final~

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1. Universe
2. Solar system
3. Distance between the sun and the planets in the solar system (to scale)
4. AU&light year
5. Composition of universe (star, planets, dwarf planets, comet, asteroid, moons,
nebula, galaxy, galaxy cluster, Local group, galaxy superclusters)
6. Scientific hypothesis (falsifiable statement, simple, beauty)
7. GRAVITY (differences between the four force of nature)
8. Newton's law of gravity
9. Orbit (orbiting velocity, escape velocity, free fall)
10. Evolutionary astronomy (Tycho, Kepler, Kepler's law of planetary motion)
11. The night sky (galactic plane, why location matter when look into the universe)
12. Constellations (circumpolar stars, celestial coordinates, declination, right
ascension, celestial sphere, celestial pole, horizontal coordinates, equatorial
system, latitude, longitude, meridian)
13. Seasons (axis tilt, ecliptic plane, zodiac, direct sunlight, apparent path of the sun
during the year, meridian, equinoxes, solstices, aphelion, perihelion,angles of
sunlight, rotation)
14. Phases of the moon (moon's orbiting period, meridians, lunar cycle, synchronous
15. Lunar eclipses (penumbra, umbra, partial eclipse, total eclipse, penumbra eclipse)
16. Solar eclipses (partial eclipse, total eclipse, annular eclipse, the tilt between
moon's orbiting path and the ecliptic plane,nodes line,saros cycle)
17. *Angular measurements & angular sizes
18. Planetary motion (apparent retrograde motion, stellar parallax)
19. The ancient planetary models (Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Newton)
20. Tides (tidal gravity, tidal lock, wobbling effect, net force, tidal fraction, tides and
lunar phases)
21. Precession (centrifugal force, oblateness precessing period of 26000yrs, torque,
spin axis)
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22. Light (medium, difference between water wave, wavelength&frequency = negative
correlation, electromagnetic spectrum)
23. Telescope (light gathering, resolution, magnification = photoshop)
24. Spectroscopy (spectra, relatively hot gas, continuous spectrum, emission and
absorption specturm)
25. Doppler effect (redshift or blueshift, can occurs in sound, light and water)
26. Blackbody radiation (temperature, spectrum changes when temperature changes)
27. Solar system (composition, terrestrial planets, jovian planets, inner solar system,
asteroid belt, outer solar system, kuiper belt, trans-neptunian objects, dwarf
planets, debris, oort cloud sphere)
28. Terrestrial planets
29. Surface (comparative planetology, accretion, differentiation, radioactivity &
convection, conduction, radiation,surface area to volume ratio, impact cratering--
craters & terraces or central peak & impact gardening, volcanism, tectonics,
30. Atmosphere (carbon cycle on earth, dead Venus, water on Mars)
31. Jovian planets (formation, protoplanetary disk, frost line, solar wind, composition
of Saturn & Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune, aurora, moons, Galilean moons, visible
binocular, small moons, medium moons and large moons, tidal heating, orbital
32. Gelilean moons (Europa, Ganymede--largest moon, Callisto--no tidal heating and
orbital resonance)
33. Titan (Saturn' s moon-- only moon has atmosphere)
34. Neptune's Triton (apparent retrograde, probably captured)
35. Jovian planet rings (composition, orbit over equator, very thin-- few meters, but
large in diameter, ring gap, gap moon)
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