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University of Toronto St. George
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Clifford Orwin

1. Universe 2. Solar system 3. Distance between the sun and the planets in the solar system (to scale) 4. AU&light year 5. Composition of universe (star, planets, dwarf planets, comet, asteroid, moons, nebula, galaxy, galaxy cluster, Local group, galaxy superclusters) 6. Scientific hypothesis (falsifiable statement, simple, beauty) 7. GRAVITY (differences between the four force of nature) 8. Newtons law of gravity 9. Orbit (orbiting velocity, escape velocity, free fall) 10. Evolutionary astronomy (Tycho, Kepler, Keplers law of planetary motion) 11. The night sky (galactic plane, why location matter when look into the universe) 12. Constellations (circumpolar stars, celestial coordinates, declination, right ascension, celestial sphere, celestial pole, horizontal coordinates, equatorial system, latitude, longitude, meridian) 13. Seasons (axis tilt, ecliptic plane, zodiac, direct sunlight, apparent path of the sun during the year, meridian, equinoxes, solstices, aphelion, perihelion,angles of sunlight, rotation) 14. Phases of the moon (moons orbiting period, meridians, lunar cycle, synchronous rotation) 15. Lunar eclipses (penumbra, umbra, partial eclipse, total eclipse, penumbra eclipse) 16. Solar eclipses (partial eclipse, total eclipse, annular eclipse, the tilt between moons orbiting path and the ecliptic plane,nodes line,saros cycle) 17. *Angular measurements & angular sizes 18. Planetary motion (apparent retrograde motion, stellar parallax) 19. The ancient planetary models (Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Newton) 20. Tides (tidal gravity, tidal lock, wobbling effect, net force, tidal fraction, tides and lunar phases) 21. Precession (centrifugal force, oblateness precessing period of 26000yrs, torque, spin axis)
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