ANT204 Exam Study Notes 2013

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Department
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Course
AST101H1
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
ANT204ExamStudyNotesASPECIALTHANKYOUTOALLWHOHASCONTRIBUTEDIHAVEDONEMYBESTTOPUTTHISSTUDYGUIDETOGETHERANDIHOPEWEALLDOAWESOMEONTHEEXAMGOODLUCKJALSOSORRYIFIMISPELTYOURNAMEKeyWordsandKeyPhrases1TomakethestrangeseemfamiliarandthefamiliarseemstrangeAartiChadeethisstatementisapivotalpartthatconstitutestheessenceofsocioculturalanthropologyasthequestionofwhatissocioculturalanthropologyiscomprisedoftwothings1UnderstandingthehumanconditionThisinvolvesaskingthequestionsofhowareourlivesarestructuredUnderstandingthehumanconditionalsoincludesrealizingthatwearelivinginacontradictoryworldwhichisapartoftheanthropologicalwaybecausemultiplemeaningscanbecreatedinvariouscontexts2TounderstandsamenessanddifferencesThisiswhereweseetheintroductionoftheidea SymboltomakethefamiliarseemstrangeandthefamiliarseemstrangeTounderstandsamenessanddifferencesanthropologistsaskhowdidraceculturegenderandethnicitycomeaboutandhowdowelookatsamenessordifferencesinculturalrightsThisquoteoveralliseasiertounderstandwiththefollowingquoteWecannottakeforgrantedevenaboutourownbeliefsandbehaviourletalonethebehaviourandbeliefsofthosewhosebackgroundsandhistoriesdifferfromourownRobbinsothemainpointisthatthisquoteisattheheartofsocioculturalanthropologybecausesocioculturalanthropologyexaminesathowsocietiesarestructuredandhowculturalmeaningsarecreatedTheseanthropologistsarealsointerestedindifferencesamongpeoplesthroughouttheworldtheyalsolookforsimilaritiesinhowpeopleconstructtheirownversionsofwhatitmeanstobehumanotheotherimportantanthropologicalfeatureofthisquoteisthatitpromptsanthropologistsandcitizenstoquestioneverythingabouttheworldthattheybelievedwasnaturalHumanshavebelieveditwasnaturalforindividualswhowereunderdevelopeduneducatedpoorruralthirdworldbackwardsandhavebeenlabelledprimitivewhileindividualswhodevelopededucatedrichfirstworldandmoderntobelabelledcivilizedHoweverinthefieldofsocioculturalanthropologynothingisevernaturalasconceptslikeracegenderandethnicityaresociallyconstructedbyhumansandmadetoseemnaturalothisiswhywheneveryouhearthewordnaturalinanthropologyaredflagshouldcomeupbecausenothingisevernaturalespeciallynotinanthropologyoanexampleofthisisNandaShresthaassomethingShresthareferstobikasbikasisusetobringaboutdevelopmentfortheabikasisthesearethingssuchasroadsairplanesdamshospitalsandfancybuildingsBikasisreferstoindividualswhoaredevelopedbecausetheycanspeakEnglishandareeducatedindividualswhileabikasisareunderdevelopedindividualstheyarepoorindividualswhoselivesaregovernedbymanuallabourShresthausesthetermsbikasandWesternersinterchangeablybutIbelievethatbikasisanimportantterminShresthascriticismsofdevelopmentbecauseinthiscasetheNepalesehavedevelopedablindfaithtowardsbikasandbelievethatmorebikasmeantlesspovertyTheyallowedthemselvestobedominatedbyWesternerswhomadethembelievethatiftheywantedtoescapepovertythattheywouldhavetotransformthemselvesfromabikasistobikasisThismeanttheyhadtosneeratmanuallabourinfavourofeducationeventhoughmanuallabouristhecommonwayoflifeforanabikasitoearnhislivingHoweverShresthasreasoningforcritiquingthisnotionofdevelopmentbecomesclearerthroughtheexampleofaschoolthatwasbroughtaboutduetoforeignaidthisschoolhadatinroofnicewindowsandblackboardsfinefurnitureandtoolsandobjectstheycouldntevenimagineThiswasnothingliketheabikasiseverhadbeforeDevelopmentthroughthemeansofthisschoolhasnotdiminishedpovertyfromthelivesoftheabikasisbutratherhasgiventhematemporarybreakfrompovertyBikaswaspresentatschoolbutnotathomeitdidnothingtoreducetheirhungerAsaresultexpectationshadbeenraisedfortheabikasisthedisappointmentbetweenrealityandthisfantasyworldwasbecomingmorefrequentthisleadtoasecondcriticismwithdevelopmentBikasconfirmedthattheabikasiswereincapableofdoingthingsthemselvesandsincetheabikasisbelievedtheWesternwayoflifecouldupliftthemfrompovertyandsincebikasbroughteverythingtheyneededtherewasnoreasonforthemtoworkAsaresulthoweverpovertybecamefrighteningwantswererisingbuttheabikasisdidntbothertohelpthemselvesbecausetheybelievedthatforeignaidwouldfixtheirproblemsShresthavehementlycriticizesdevelopmentbecauseitdoesntsolvetheproblemofpovertybutaddstoitthisarticlefocusesondevelopmentandwecanseethatwiththeadditionoftheschoolthatWesternerssawitasaneducationalinstitutionwhereoneattendssotheycanhavebetterjobprospectsandmakemoremoneySymbolthisisfamiliartothemWhattheysawasstrangeorwhattheyshouldseeasstrangeistheviewsoftheNepalesetowardtheschoolTothemtheschoolwasanescapefrompovertyaseverythingwasbrandnewandnothinglikethisbeforesoinawaythisschoolwasstrangetotheNepaleseandtheWesternerswantedtomakeitafamiliarconcepttothembecausetheywantedtheNepalesetobelievethattheywerehelpingtobettertheirlivingwheninrealitythiswasawaytomakethedifferencesbetweenthesetwogroupsmoreobviousandcontrolthesepeopleRaaginiAppadurai ThisphrasereferstooneofthemajorgoalsofAnthropologytomakethestrangeseemfamiliarandthefamiliarseemstrangeTheAnthropologicalprojectisparticularlycomplicatedbecausewehavetolookintoourselvesandourunderstandingoftheworldaroundusasmuchaswedoothersBecausewedonotfullyunderstandourownnotionsandmeaningsofdailyexistencewecannotexpecttofullyunderstandsomeoneelsesRobbinsarticulatesthisideainsayingWecannottakeforgrantedevenourownbeliefsandbehaviourletalonethebehaviourandbeliefsofthosewhosebackgroundsandhistoriesdifferfromourownExampleInRichardBorshayLeesarticleEatingChristmasintheKalahariRichardsexperiencewiththeBushmenshowedhowcertainbehavioursandactionsthatatfirstseemedutterlystrangeanddifferenttoRichardactuallyturnedouttomakealotofsenseandholdacertainmeaningthatcouldbelearnedandunderstoodinadifferentway SophiaZarskyfundamentalpartofsocioculturalanthropologyInanthromustlookateverysituationfromallpossiblesidespointsifviewthiscannotonlybeashallowunderstandingofallsidesExampleusedinlectureEatingChristmasintheKalahariLeecomestounderstandthattheculturethathewasstudyingwasdifferentthanhisownOnceherealizesthewaythatthepeopleofthetribewerelookingathisbringingalargeoxheunderstandsthesituationandbetterunderstandsthepeopleVilena Sabaeva Anthropological method is to understand the human condition and understand sameness and differenceaappreciate the views of others while at the same time question own views of the worldbBy making the familiar seem strange it encourage students to work to denaturalize their everyday surroundings to understand the familiar with reference to long histories as humans our history with nature and the flow of cultural practice across the world all of which shape the familiar of our everyday livescAnthropology reminds us that humans are equipped to live a thousand different lives and the ones we end up living are shaped by the cultural contexts in which we grow up and live dRobbins We cannot take for granted even about our own beliefs and behavior let alone the behavior and beliefs of those whose backgrounds
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