AST201 AST201H1-S Midterm 1 Study Guide.docx

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Astronomy & Astrophysics
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Stephen Reid

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MIDTERM 1 ASTRONOMY 201 Chapter 3: Keplers 3 Laws: - a) Planets movie in elliptical orbits around the sun b) Planets sweep out equal area as they move in equal time, c) Planets move faster when closer to the sun, and slower when far from sun. P2=A3 2) Ptolemy- Earth centered model, Copernicus- Sun centered model- gave to Tycho Brah to find solution to make sun centered model Galileo- Sun centered model 1) Moon has flaws, 2) Stellar parallax, 3) Jupiter has other things orbiting it. Chapter 4: Newtons Law of Motion. Properties: Law of Conservation of Momentum, or Angular Momentum and of energy. 1) Every force has an equal or always has a opposite force, 2) An object will remain at constant velocity until another net force attacks it and changes its speed/direction 3) Force =Mass xAccel3 a) Law of Conservation of Momentum: Explains why objects remain at constant velocity An object can only gain / loose momentum if a force acts to exchange momentum with it. b) Law of Anguler Momentum: An object cannot change unless momentum is transferred to it from a force ( i.e Earth orbiting sun , repeatedly unless another planet came and gave force to earth, earth would stop) c) Law of Energy -Kinetic, Radiative, Potential MASS VS WEIGHT. – Mass unchanging, weight- changing Free fall. NEWTONS FORCE OF GRAVITY: His universal law of gravitation: can be summed up to : f8=G(M1+M2)/d 2 1) Gravity makes everything attract each other. 2) The higher the mass is of one object, the more gravitation force increases. 3) The farther the two objects from each other are (inverse square law) x 4. The weaker the gravitational pull between the two objects are. -Newtons Unbound orbits- Comits that never retun -Newtons version of Keplers 1 and 2 law, and him extending Kepler’s third law. P2=4(pie)^2/G(M1+M2)^a3 Atmospheric Drag- Friction and how things can blow up, because of it, things move. Escape Velocity- 40 000Km/h, or 11km/s every required to leave earth . -GRAVITY CAUSES TIDES: There are daily 2 high tides and 2 low tides in earths rotation every day. This happens when for example you pull a rubber band and pull it, this unknown force is trying to rip apart earth, this is the tidal force( which is moons gravity_ Tidal Force results in tidal friction, which explains earth rotation as it slows down, and stays in sync with the moon. CHAPTER 5 Wavelenghth. Radio waves, microwaves, Infrared, Visible light, Ultra violet, X-rays, Gamma rays ( FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OPPOSITE) Longer Wavelength= lower frequiency & Energy Shorter Wavelenth=higher frequency & Energy Every matter is made up of atoms= which is made up of protons, electrons and
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