MIDTERM 1 ASTRONOMY 201
Keplers 3 Laws: - a) Planets movie in elliptical orbits around the sun
b) Planets sweep out equal area as they move in equal time,
c) Planets move faster when closer to the sun, and slower when far from sun.
2) Ptolemy- Earth centered model,
Copernicus- Sun centered model-
gave to Tycho Brah to find solution to make sun centered model
Galileo- Sun centered model 1) Moon has flaws, 2) Stellar parallax, 3) Jupiter has
other things orbiting it.
Newtons Law of Motion.
Properties: Law of Conservation of Momentum, or Angular Momentum and of
1) Every force has an equal or always has a opposite force,
2) An object will remain at constant velocity until another net force
attacks it and changes its speed/direction
3) Force =Mass xAccel3
a) Law of Conservation of Momentum: Explains why objects remain at
constant velocity An object can only gain / loose momentum if a force
acts to exchange momentum with it.
b) Law of Anguler Momentum: An object cannot change unless momentum
is transferred to it from a force ( i.e Earth orbiting sun , repeatedly unless
another planet came and gave force to earth, earth would stop)
c) Law of Energy
-Kinetic, Radiative, Potential
MASS VS WEIGHT. – Mass unchanging, weight- changing Free fall.
NEWTONS FORCE OF GRAVITY:
His universal law of gravitation: can be summed up to : f8=G(M1+M2)/d 2
1) Gravity makes everything attract each other.
2) The higher the mass is of one object, the more gravitation force increases. 3) The farther the two objects from each other are (inverse square law) x 4.
The weaker the gravitational pull between the two objects are.
-Newtons Unbound orbits- Comits that never retun
-Newtons version of Keplers 1 and 2 law, and him extending Kepler’s third law.
Atmospheric Drag- Friction and how things can blow up, because of it, things
Escape Velocity- 40 000Km/h, or 11km/s every required to leave earth .
-GRAVITY CAUSES TIDES: There are daily 2 high tides and 2 low tides in earths
rotation every day. This happens when for example you pull a rubber band and pull
it, this unknown force is trying to rip apart earth, this is the tidal force( which is
moons gravity_ Tidal Force results in tidal friction, which explains earth rotation
as it slows down, and stays in sync with the moon.
Wavelenghth. Radio waves, microwaves, Infrared, Visible light, Ultra violet, X-rays,
Gamma rays ( FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OPPOSITE)
Longer Wavelength= lower frequiency & Energy
Shorter Wavelenth=higher frequency & Energy
Every matter is made up of atoms= which is made up of protons, electrons and