AST201H1- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 14 pages long!)

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Published on 5 Oct 2017
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AST201H1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Property of waves
● Wavelength is the distance between two wave peaks
● Frequency is the number of times per second that a wave vibrates up and down
● Wave speed = wavelength x frequency
● This is like water, the waves are smaller closer to the shore
● You can change the pitch of your voice, changing the wavelengths * helium
Light: electromagnetic waves
● A light wave is a vibration of electric and magnetic “fields”
● Light interacts with charged particles through these electric and magnetic fields
Wavelength and frequency
● Are related by speed
● Wavelength x frequency = speed of light = constant
Particles of light
● Particles of light are called photons
● Each photon has a wavelength and a frequency
● The energy of a photon depend son its frequency (or wavelength)
● Some metals are better at others for converting photons to electricity
● Theres a connection btw the colour of light and the photon
wavelength , frequency and energy
● The different equations
● Tells us how much energy in each photon for light of a given frequency (colour)
● Different colours of light are emmited by diff items
The higher the photon energy….
● *use the equation
● The shorter the wavelength
5.3 the properties of matter
What is the structure of matter?
● 92 elements = 92 diff kinds of atoms
● Inside an atom theres a nucleus
● Electron cloud is a million times larger than the nucleus
● Cant tell where the electron is because violates the law: if you know how much energy
there is, you dont know where it is located
● Every electron in the atom can have different very precise amounts of energy
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Atomic terminology
● Atomic number = number of nucleus
● Atomic mass # = # of protons + nucleus
○ As you go along the periodic table, the number of protons increases.
■ The number of neutrons, (the weight), doesnt change the type of element.
It just makes the atom heavier. These are isotopes
■ *study the pics and know to calculate the number of neutrons and protons
from the atomic mass #
● Molecules consist of two or more atoms
isotope
● same # of protons but diff # of neutrons
What are the phases of matter?
● Familiar phases
○ Solid (ice)
○ Liquid (water)
○ Gas (water vapour)
○ *think of the phases of water* all are the same molecule
○ The only difference is the amount of energy in the water
■ As the temperature changes the phase changes too
● Phases of same material behanve differently bc of differences in chemical bonds
● Plasma phase: the atoms are knocked off. The phase after gas
Phase changes
● Ionization- stripping of electrons, changing atoms into plasma
● dissociation - breaking of molecules into atoms
Phases and pressure
Colour can be a measure of temperature WIEN’S LAW
● Solids, liquids and dense gases emit electromagnetic radation (light)
● Black smiths have known this for a long time
● The colour of the ligh emitted tells us the temperature of hte material
● We call this “thermal radiation”
● The temperature u get the metal is important for the type of crystal lattice you will create.
This is revealed by colours.
● All colours in theory are emitted, but the light is brightest at a particular colour
(wavelength) that is directly proportional to the material’s temperature
● Red - hot
● Blue - cold
● Deep red to brighter red to yellow to white
● The steele can change colour according to how hot it is
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