Midterm review A

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University of Toronto St. George
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Stefan Mochnacki

UNIVERSE totality of all space, time, energy, and matter 13.7 billion years oldbirth at BIG BANG with only 2 elements: hydrogen & helium all other elements made by stars light year = distance light travels in one year limit on how far we can see, the universe is the OBSERVABLE universe because light takes time to travel to us, looking far away = LOOKING BACK IN TIME distance to nearest large galaxy is 2.5 million ly, therefore we see it as it was 2.5 million years ago planets stars (produce energy by nuclear fusion) solar system (1 or more planets orbiting a star) galaxy (collection of billions of starts orbiting a common centerwe live in milky way galaxy) local group (mw, Andromeda, and others orbit one another and make up local group)galaxy clusters (moving apart from each other)galaxy superclusters ( enormous groups of galaxies all orbiting one another) AU (astronomical unit) distance btw sun and earth MOTION -SPEED = distancetime -VELOCITY= speed and direction -ACCELERATION=any change in velocity speedtime -(g)acceleration of gravity- all falling objects accelerate at same rate despite mass air resistance causes differences in acceleration -momentum = mass x velocity - force is the only way to change momentum causing acceleration (-+) NET FORCE=combined effect of all the individual forces put together -ANGULAR MOMENTUM- rotational momentum of a spinningorbiting object =mass x velocity x radius www.notesolution.com
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