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Midterm

MIDTERM REVIEW B


Department
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Course Code
AST201H1
Professor
Stefan Mochnacki
Study Guide
Midterm

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Universal Law of Gravitation:
1.Every mass attracts every other mass
2.Attraction is directly proportional to the product of their masses
3.Attraction is inversely proportional to the square of the distance
between their centers
-because of momentum conservation, orbiting objects ORBIT AROUND
THEIR CENTER OF MASS
-NEWTON AND KEPLERS 3RD LAW laws of gravity and motion showed
that the relationship between the orbital period and average orbital distance
of a system tells us the total mass of the system
-Newtons law applies to other objects not just planets (the force that makes
things fall on earth is same force that keeps planets in orbit!) and can be used
to measure mass of orbiting systems
force of gravity (f)= m x m2/d squared
increase mass of object = increase in force (cuz mass is multiplied)
increase in distance btw objects = decrease in force (cuz distance is
divided!)
-when gravity brings objects together ( 1st law of G), it creates gravitational
potential energy
LIGHT- a form of energy
-measure flow of energy in light in WATTS - 1 watt = 1 joule/s
- white light is made up of many diff colours
-light and matter interact through :
1. Emission (light bulb emits visible lightlight come from electrical
potential energy
2. Absorption (your hand absorbs some of the light when you put near
a light bulb and creates warmth)
3. Transmission (glass transmits light, allows light to pass through)
-transparent objects transmit light
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-opaque objects block/absorb light
4. Reflection/scattering (light can bounce off matter reflection=
bouncing in same direction-scattering-bouncing off randomly)
-light can act like :
a) wave (pattern that carries energy not matter)
b) particle (thing)- PHOTON- each photon carries a specific amount of
radiative energy
-shorter the wavelength , the higher the energy of photons
-wavelength- distance btw 2 peaks
- frequency- # of times per second a wave vibrates up and down
-wavespeed =wavelength x frequency
-light is an electromagnetic wave vibrations of electric field will cause
electron to bob up and down
** LONGER THE WAVELENGTH, LOWER THE FRQUENCY/ENERGY,
& SHORTER THE WAVELNGTH=HIGH FREQUENCY =MORE ENERGY
- change frequency of light changes the color:
RED cooler, less energy, longer wavelengths
BLUE- hotter, more energy, higher frequency
EACH FREQUENCY HAS DIFF ENERGIES:
Radio LONGER WAVELENGTH COOLER
Microwave
Infrared (ppl emit infrared)
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