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AST201H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Electronvolt, Electric Potential Energy, Spectroscopy

Astronomy & Astrophysics
Course Code
Stefan Mochnacki
Study Guide

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AST201 – 5.3-5.4
Properties of Matter 5.3
- Light carries matter through the universe
- Atoms
- Elements
- Atomic structure
oProtons – positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom
oNeutrons – neutral charge; in nucleus with protons
oElectrons – neg. charge; float around nucleus in a “cloud”
oNucleus – where protons and neutrons are
- Protons/neutrons are ca. 2000 times the mass of electrons
- Properties of atoms depend on electrical charge of nucleus
- Total electric charge is always conserved (like energy)
- Electric charge of a proton = +1
- Electric charge of an electron = -1
- Electric charge of a neutron = 0 (no charge)
- Opposite charges attract (proton + electron) /same charges repel (proton + proton)
- Atomic number – number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
- Atomic mass – protons + neutrons
- Isotopes – versions of atoms with different atomic masses (more or fewer neutrons)
- Compound molecule – molecule with more than one type of atom (e.g. H20)
- Molecules behave differently than their individual atoms
Phases of Matter
- Solid – measurable shape and volume
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