Study Guides (380,000)
CA (150,000)
UTSG (10,000)
BIO (400)
BIO120H1 (100)
Study Guide

BIO120H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 135 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO120H1
Professor
Spencer Barrett
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 135 pages of the document.
UTSG
BIO120H1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

BIO120H1(F) - Lecture 1 Monday, September 11, 2017
Levels of biological organization:
1) Molecules
2) Cells
3) Organisms
4) Populations***
Note: The population level is the primary unit of evolution*
5) Communities
6) Ecosystems
Questions in evolutionary biology
Scope of question
o Small: answering small tractable questions can help contribute towards solving a
big question
o Large: unlikely to be answered by one experiment; requires multiple lines of
evidence (e.g., Why did sex evolve? Why is most biodiversity in the tropics?)
Type of question how vs. why questions
o how questions (proximate questions) involve determining the physiological or
genetic mechanisms responsible for aspects of a trait
o why questions (ultimate questions) involve determining the ecological function
and adaptive significance of a trait
Approaches used in evolutionary biology
A variety of approaches are used to address questions; the best studies use more than
one source of evidence:
o Observational describe and quantify
o Theoretical develop models (verbal, graphical, mathematical)
o Comparative obtain same data from many species
o Experimental manipulate a system to address a specific hypothesis; requires an
experimental design and statistical analysis
Important assumptions about evolution verified by scientific study:
Organisms on earth have changed through time
The charges are gradual, not instantaneous
Lineages split or branch by speciation resulting in the generation of biodiversity
All species have common ancestors
Most evolutionary change results from natural selection the only process responsible
for the evolution of biodiversity and adaptation
o Though there are other processes like genetic drift that are important in
evolution, but randomness will not result in the evolution of adaptation and
biodiversity**
***Biodiversity and adaptation are therefore products of evolution***
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

BIO120H1(F) - Lecture 1 Monday, September 11, 2017
- Biodiversity the variety of life on earth; the number and kinds of living organisms in a given
area
- Adaptation 2 meanings; as a state or process
o Any trait that contributes to fitness by making an organism better able to survive or
reproduce in a given environment (a noun)
o The evolutionary process that leads to the origin and maintenance of such traits (a verb)
Theory of Evolution:
The central unifying concept of biology
Affects many other areas of knowledge
One of the most influential concepts of Western thought
Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900-1975)
Nothig i iolog akes sese eept i the light of eolutio.
Fruit fly geneticist and founder of the modern evolutionary synthesis
Evolutionary biology today
2 major sub-fields:
o Evolutionary mechanisms (microevolution)
the study of evolutionary mechanisms, usually conducted at the
population level, and involves determining the ecological and genetic
mechanisms that are driving evolutionary change in a population
largely experimental field that are used to help test theoretical models
o Evolutionary history (macroevolution)
determining the relationships among a group of organisms
Note: The best studies integrate information from both*
Evolutionary mechanisms:
Determine the ecological and genetic mechanisms responsible for evolutionary change
Involve population-level studies of natural selection, adaptation, and speciation using
diverse organisms
Testing of theoretical models by experiments in the laboratory and field
Largely process-oriented and experimental
Evolutionary history:
Determines evolutionary relationships of organisms in terms of common ancestry
phylogenetics
Affinities of organisms provide a basis for classification taxonomy & systematics
Comparative data from many sources (e.g., biogeography, paleontology, morphology,
development and genomics)
Largely pattern-based and non-experimental
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version