Study Guides (256,436)
CA (124,640)
UTSG (8,518)
BIO (362)
BIO120H1 (144)
Final

Study notes for fall semester labs

7 Pages
67 Views

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO120H1
Professor
Benjamin Wright

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
CHAPTER 1: Insect Diversity and Adaptation
-Insects (class Insecta, with 29 orders)
oArthropods: animals with jointed legs
oBody: head, thorax, and abdomen
From thorax extend 3 pairs of legs, 1-2 pairs of wings
oVariety of habitats
oMost successful order: beetles
-Adaptation
oThe trait: improves the organisms chances of survival and reproduction
May be physical or behavioural
Eventually spreads through entire population by natural selection
oThe process: through which such traits arise
oMechanism: natural selection
New traits and new combinations of traits arise through
Mutation: genetic errors
Recombination: mixing of genes through sex
Individuals with favourable traits will have higher fitness
Should such trait be heritable, eventually population will have it
Adaptation Viability OR Reproduction Notes
Camouflage Viability
Feeding Viability
Life in WaterViability
Intra-Sexual
Competition
Reproduction
Mate Choice Reproduction
InsectsOrderNotes
ButterfliesLepidopteraComplete metamorphosis
Larvae feed on vegetation, adults on nectar: different
mouthparts
Adults reproduce: brightly coloured wings
Predator: birds
NOTE!
Evolution is change
over generations in the
proportion of
individuals with a
certain trait.
NOTE!
Not all traits are adaptations.
Consider the evolutionary history and relationships (phylogeny)
Not all differences between populations are the result of natural selection
Genetic drift and gene flow cause populations to change genetically
www.notesolution.com
WaterstridersHemipteraHabitat: surface film of pools, streams, oceans
Mate choice: struggles only some males can overcome
Water-repellent hairs on feet
Long, thin legs supporting light body
Tubular sucking mouthparts
Excellent eyesight
Walkingsticks Phasmatodea Climate: tropics
Diet: leaves
Mate choice: longer females preferred
Predators: birds, small mammals
Incomplete metamorphosis
Appearance: camouflage
Leaf InsectsPhasmatodea Incomplete metamorphosis
Madagascar hissing
cockroaches
Blattodea Habitat: forests
Diet: vegetable matter
Intra-sexual competition & mate choice: males have bumps
on dorsal prothorax for defending territory and mating,
females prefer larger
Intra-sexual competition & mate choice: males to intimidate
or court, females prefer louder hisses
Females carry eggs in ootheca
Stag, rhino, and buffalo
beetles
ColeopteraComplete metamorphosis
Habitat: decaying wood
Intra-sexual competition: males have mandibles to fight
other males
Stalk-eyed fliesDipteraComplete metamorphosis
Diet: decomposing vegetable matter
Habitat: exposed root hairs of plants
Giant water bugsHemipteraPrey: fish, tadpoles, crustaceans, insects
Paternal care: male carries eggs around
Praying mantidsMantodea Prey: variety of insects
Sit and wait method
Females carry eggs in ootheca
CHAPTER 2: Introduction to Population Genetics
-Population genetics: how Mendels laws (allele segregation and independent assortment) and other genetic principles
apply to populations
oEssential to evolution: evolution being change in genetic composition of a population
oHardy-Weinberg equation: p² + 2pq + q² for a single locus with two alleles
Predicts genotype frequencies (p², 2pq, q²) from allele frequencies (p, q)
Assumes
Sexual reproduction: each sperm has equal chance of fertilizing each
egg
Large enough population size to be unaffected by random gene
changes
No gene flow
Either no mutations or mutational equilibrium
Random reproduction, independent of genotype
Natural selection not acting on a phenotype
Significant deviation from expected Hardy-Weinberg values is evidence of an agent of evolution at
work
-Case 1: Random mating, no selection
oRandom mating of individuals and random union of gametes
oAccept null hypothesis: no selection so no change in genotype and allele frequencies
-Case 2: Selection
oSickle-cell anemia: AA normal, AS survives, SS dies
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
CHAPTER 1: Insect Diversity and Adaptation - Insects (class Insecta, with 29 orders) o Arthropods: animals with jointed legs NOTE! o Body: head, thorax, and abdomen Evolution is change From thorax extend 3 pairs of legs, 1-2 pairs of wings over generations in the o Variety of habitats proportion of o Most successful order: beetles - Adaptation individuals with a certain trait. o The trait: improves the organisms chances of survival and reproduction May be physical or behavioural Eventually spreads through entire population by natural selection o The process: through which such traits arise o Mechanism: natural selection New traits and new combinations of traits arise through Mutation: genetic errors Recombination: mixing of genes through sex Individuals with favourable traits will have higher fitness Should such trait be heritable, eventually population will have it NOTE! Not all traits are adaptations. Consider the evolutionary history and relationships (phylogeny) Not all differences between populations are the result of natural selection Genetic drift and gene flow cause populations to change genetically Adaptation Viability OR Reproduction Notes Camouflage Viability Feeding Viability Life in Water Viability Intra-Sexual Reproduction Competition Mate Choice Reproduction Insects Order Notes Butterflies Lepidoptera Complete metamorphosis Larvae feed on vegetation, adults on nectar: different mouthparts Adults reproduce: brightly coloured wings Predator: birds www.notesolution.comWaterstriders Hemiptera Habitat: surface film of pools, streams, oceans Mate choice: struggles only some males can overcome Water-repellent hairs on feet Long, thin legs supporting light body Tubular sucking mouthparts Excellent eyesight Walkingsticks Phasmatodea Climate: tropics Diet: leaves Mate choice: longer females preferred Predators: birds, small mammals Incomplete metamorphosis Appearance: camouflage Leaf Insects Phasmatodea Incomplete metamorphosis Madagascar hissing Blattodea Habitat: forests cockroaches Diet: vegetable matter Intra-sexual competition & mate choice: males have bumps on dorsal prothorax for defending territory and mating, females prefer larger Intra-sexual competition & mate choice: males to intimidate or court, females prefer louder hisses Females carry eggs in ootheca Stag, rhino, and buffalo Coleoptera Complete metamorphosis beetles Habitat: decaying wood Intra-sexual competition: males have mandibles to fight other males Stalk-eyed flies Diptera Complete metamorphosis
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit