fossil record as evidence for evolutionary change “descent with modification”
speciation should be found in fossil record – splitting of species
species that link, “missing links”, together major groups should be found show
be able to find imperfect designs!
See natural selection happening in the wild
Retrodictions (things that only make sense in the light of evolution): patterns of
species distribution, vestigial features, how organisms develop.
-we only have a fossil record for 0.1-1 percent of all life in all of history
- principle of super position- ordering rocks by age, tells relative age, not
- radio isotopes used too, uranium-235 for older rocks and carbon-14 for
- rocks that bear fossils are sedimentary and harder to date (can be aged by
using adjacent igneous using radioisotopes)
- earth is 4.6 billion years old, corals used to find days and months length
- evolution is not always consistent, sometimes it is irregular like the
- transitional forms: fossils that fill gaps b/w different kinds of organisms,
from bird to humans.
- Creationists believe in microevolution (minor changes) but not
macroevolution (one animals completely changes into another!)
- transitional and ancestral species are not the same. Transitional could be
cousins to the descendants, and they have to appear before and after one of
the species not just b/w the two species, as do ancestral species.
- link b/w fish and amphibians: tetrapods (titaalik) Like fish + amphibian,
could breather with lungs and gills. [transitional]
- how did animals begin to fly? First by gliding flying squirrel & lemur are
-archaeopteryx – dinsosaur had feathers, change from reptiles to birds!
Called a “mosaic”. Then in Chain, another feathered dinosaur was discovered
“S. milleni”, then the 4-winged dinosaur called “M. gui”
- these bird-like dinsosaurs (theropods- even behaved like birds (sleeping)
- wings came from the genes that make scales in reptiles
- wings could have developed b/c of two reasons: ground up theory –
leaping to catch prey, or b/c of the trees down theory- living in trees for
food, escaping predation
- transitional form b/w aquatic and terrestrial: the hippo! spend most time
in water (birth) but can come on land. Release a red oil sunscreen to
- whales have vestigial features, like hind legs, which suggest it came from a
species that lived on land, the closet relative of the whale is the hippo!