[BIO130H1] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 33 pages long Study Guide!

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30 Mar 2017
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UTSG
BIO130H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Typical Model Organisms
- E.Coli = prokaryotic cell
- Yeast = eukaryotic cell
- Arabidopsis
- Caenorhabditis elegans
- Drosophila (fruit fly)
- Mouse (model mammalian organism)
The Molecules of Life
- DNA
- RNA
- Protein
- All about nomenclature (names)
TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION TO CELLS, DIVERSITY AND NUCLEIC ACIDS
Cell theory:
1. All organisms are comprised of one or more cells
2. The cell is the basis organizational unit of life
3. All cells arise from pre-existing cells (Heredity is essential to definition + longevity of life)
TWO MAIN TYPES OF CELLS
1. Prokaryotic cells
a. No nuclei. There is no distinct compartment for the DNA
b. Primarily single celled (Mostly). Although they are single celled, they live in communities,
but are NOT multicellular. 500-6000 genes
c. Two categories: Eubacteria and Archea
2. Eukaryotic cells
a. Have nuclei
b. Single-celled or multicellular. Tend to be much more complex than prokaryotes. 22000+
genes
c. Plants, fungi, animals, humans
PROKARYOTIC CELL
- Ribosomes are free floating + not attached to any membrane system
- Free-flowing nucleoid (No membrane-bound organelles). There is no membrane-bound
nucleus
- Due tend to have DNA in non-membrane bound nucleoid (free-flowing nucleoid)
- Does not have any other membrane-bound organelles
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Capsule Polysaccharide Layer for protection from engulfment. (optional, not in all
prokaryotes)
·Cell wall for general protection (optional)
·Plasma membrane
·DNA in Nucleoid compact structure of DNA in nucleoid region
·Ribosome for protein synthesis
·Bacterial flagellum for moving and locomotion (optional)
·Pilus for locomotion or conjugation (sexual), (optional)
· Cytoplasm
EUKARYOTIC CELL (ANIMAL CELL)
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