BIO130H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 47 pages long!)

394 views47 pages
29 Mar 2018
School
Department
Course

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

UTSG
BIO130H1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 47 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 47 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
BIO130 LECTURE 1
-ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPRISED OF 1 OR MORE CELLS.
-The cell is the basic organizational unit of life
-All cells arize from pre-existing cells.
-heredity is essential to the definition of life.
Slide 34:
-prokaryotic have no nuclei, they are primarily single celled (mostly), sometimes they live together in a
community/colony. Eukaryotic cells have nuclei, they can be single celled or multi cellular, they tend to
be much more complex than prokaryotes and are generally larger in size wth much larger genomes.
Prokaryotes have 500-600 genes in a prokaryote, 22k in eukaryote.
Slide 35:
There is no membrane bound nucleus. A capsule is a protein coat. The ribosomes are free-floating, they
aren’t attached to an internal membrane system. Not all have flagella. No nucleus, it has a nucleoid.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 47 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
BIO130 LECTURE 2:
Propkaryotes have a nucleoid, prokaryote has no membrane-bound organelles.
Euk cell:
Volume of a euk cell is 1000x bigger than a pro cell. It has a membrane bound nucleus, it has a
nucleolus, it has a cytoskeleton, and because the euk cel is so large, it needs a framework to move
particles from one location to another.
Plant cells:
They have chloroplasts. Plants also have vacuoles, which serves the purpose to keep the structure of the
plat. Plat ells hae ell alls, aial oes do’t hae ell alls eause they eed to hage their
shape much faster.
So did….?
Yes, it did happen in the fossil record. Prokaryotes and some complex organic molecules can be found in
the fossil reord 3 illio years ago. Eukaryotes ere’t foud 3 illio years ago. Prokaryotes
appeared first, eukaryotes appeared 1 billion years later. The 2 cells have so many similarities, and it
seems very unlikely that these complex mechanisms could have evolved independently.
Origins of mitochondria:
The endosybiome theory. 2 billion years ago there is a prokaryote (anaerobic, heterotrophe), the
prokaryote is a predator. At the same time, there would also be an aerobic prokaryote. This organism
can use O2 to generate ATP, Through phagocytosis, the aerobic prokaryote could have injested a
aerobic prokaryote, and may not have been digested, and this aerobic prokaryote could have been able
to provide ATP for the host organism. Evolution of a mitochondria happene ch sooner than the
evolution of a chloroplast. Chloroplast and mitochondria both have a double membrane system, and the
outer membrane is muc different from the inner membrane.
Carnivorous:
3 lines of edivence. 1st is the double membrane of the chloroplast and mitochondria. 2nd is mitochondria
and chloroplast have their own genome, and they are circular, which is a ey feature of prokaryotic cells.
3rd is that mitochondria and chloroplast have kept a lot of their own housekeeping machinery. They have
their own ribosomes, they have their own dna synthesis machinery,
Tree of life:
Grouped organisms by relatedness of dna sequencing, Archaea is more closely related to eucarya,
eucarya is most closely related to bacteria.
So ho…?
We have been searching for a model organism and using them to study cell and molecular biology
research.
Model organisms:
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 47 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class