BIO130H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Horizontal Gene Transfer, Bacteria, Gene Duplication

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16 Oct 2018
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ANSWER KEY FOR BIO130 MIDTERM V77
1D
2E
3A
4A
5D
6C
7B
8C
9C
10C
11D
12B
13D
14B
15A
16C
17E
18D
19C
20D
21A
22E
23A
24A
25C
26D
27B
28E
29BE
30AC
31A
32E
33A
34DE
35E
36E
1. The diversity of organism form and function observed in nature has resulted from genetic
variation and differences in patterns of gene expression. Which of the processes described
below is not a recognized mechanism for generating this diversity?
a. Gene duplication and divergence in the course of evolution.
b. Intragenic mutation resulting in modification of existing DNA sequences through mutation
and error during DNA replication.
c. Horizontal gene transfer in which DNA from one species is transferred and incorporated into
the genome of another species.
d. The synthesis of novel stretches of DNA within the genome to create new genes.
e. All of the above answers are recognized mechanisms for generating diversity.
2. Which of the following statements are false?
a. The 3 major recognized domains of life are eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and the eubacteria.
b. All eukaryotes are multi-cellular organisms with a well defined nucleus and other intracellular
organelles.
c. As one of their defining domain characteristics, eubacteria are most often located within
extreme environments such as high salinity, extremely low pH values, or the high
temperatures associated with undersea hydrothermal vents.
d. Statements (b) and (c) are false.
e. All the statements are false.
3. Which of the following statements about organelles is incorrect?
a. The membrane bound nucleoid found in eubacteria is thought to have arisen from a
primitive, predatory amoeboid-like organism.
b. Chloroplasts and mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles that are thought to have been
derived by endosymbiosis.
c. Organellar chromosomal DNA is usually circular, reflecting its prokaryotic evolutionary
origins.
d. Statements (a) and (b) are incorrect.
e. None of the statements are incorrect.
4. Which of the following would not be considered a useful attribute of a model organism?
a. Slow development with long life cycles.
b. Small adult (reproductive) size.
c. Readily available (in collections or wide-spread).
d. Easily genetically manipulated or genetically modified.
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e. Understandable genetics and mechanisms of trait inheritance.
5. Which of the following is least likely to be present in a test tube full of nucleosides?
a. Ribose sugar
b. Deoxyribose sugar
c. Adenine
d. Phosphate groups
e. Uracil
6. Which of the following conclusions or statements derived from our elaborated model of the
central dogma is incorrect?
a. The transcriptome describes the total RNA content of the cell.
b. The interactome describes primarily the interactions between the protein components of the
cell, but may also include interactions between proteins and RNA or DNA.
c. The primary direction of information flow in the cell is from translation to transcription, and
resulting in the synthesis of the proteome.
d. The proteome describes the total protein content of the cell.
e. None of the statements are incorrect.
7. Which of the following are important forces that stabilize the double helix configuration of DNA?
a. H bonds between deoxyribose and phosphate molecules.
b. Van der Waal’s attractions.
c. Hydrophobic interactions between the DNA sugar phosphate backbone and the aqueous
environment.
d. Phosphodiester linkages between complementary base pairs.
e. None of the above.
8. Which statement is incorrect?
a. RNA contains a different sugar than DNA.
b. RNA contains a different base than DNA.
c. RNA cannot base pair with other nucleic acids.
d. RNA can be double-stranded.
e. RNA secondary structure can be disrupted by heating.
9. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology…..
a. is an important tool in forensic analysis as it can amplify minute levels of DNA which can
then be sequenced.
b. requires the use of primers, dNTPs, and a DNA polymerase to produce the many copies of
the desired DNA sequence.
c. is based on the ability of double stranded DNA to separate at lower temperatures into single
stranded DNA molecules and then re-associate when the temperature increases.
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d. requires primers which are complementary to sequences on both strands of the DNA.
e. None of the statements are incorrect.
10. The α-helix and β-sheet are regular repeated secondary structures that appear in many proteins.
Which bonds are usually responsible for maintaining these structures?
a. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions between different polypeptides.
b. Hydrogen bonds between amino acid side chains (R groups).
c. Hydrogen bonds between constituent groups of the polypeptide backbone.
d. Disulphide bonds between cysteine groups.
e. Ionic bonds between polypeptide carboxyl and amino groups.
11. As a member of a drug-design team you are asked to synthesize a 5 amino acid peptide that
when encapsulated, would not integrate into, or tightly associate with a surrounding artificial lipid
bilayer. It would remain in the aqueous saline interior. The best choice for the sequence of such
a peptide would be:
a. A sequence containing 2 cysteine amino acids to form a disulphide bridge which would
reduce the peptide size by folding.
b. A sequence of 5 non-polar amino acids.
c. A sequence of any 5 amino acids that will form an amphipathic helix.
d. A sequence of 5 polar or charged amino acids.
e. None of the above.
12. Which of the following statements correctly completes the phrase?
The leading and the lagging strands differ in that.....
a. the leading strand does not require priming and the lagging strand does require priming.
b. the leading strand is synthesized in the same direction as the movement of the replication
fork, and the lagging strand is synthesized in the opposite direction.
c. the leading strand is synthesized by adding nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing strand,
and the lagging strand is synthesized by adding nucleotides to the 5' end.
d. the lagging strand is synthesized continuously, whereas the leading strand is synthesized in
short fragments that are ultimately stitched together.
e. the leading strand is synthesized at twice the rate of the lagging strand.
13. Which of the following statements correctly completes the phrase?
Proof-reading during DNA replication.....
a. requires a conformational shift of the newly synthesized strand from the polymerization
active site to the editing active site of the DNA polymerase.
b. is stimulated by the misalignment of the lagging strand with the leading strand at the
replication fork.
c. requires the activity of a 3’ to 5’ exonuclease to remove the incorrect nucleotide.
d. Statements (a) and (c) correctly complete the phrase.
e. Statements (a) and (b) correctly complete the phrase.
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