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Final

Study sheet with all topics covered in lectures and labs.

29 Pages
721 Views

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO130H1
Professor
Jane Mitchell

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BIO130 Final Exam Study Sheet
Pa g e | 1
Part 1
Cells and Genomes
-All cells:
oStore data as DNA
oUse RNA as intermediary form of data
oUse proteins as catalysts
oTranslate RNA the same way (via ribosome)
oAre enclosed in a plasma membrane
-Homologous genes genes that were once the same gene (but was changed)
oOrthologs
Same gene diverged due to intragentic mutations into 2 different
genes
Usually results in speciation
oParalogs
Duplication and divergence of genes in the SAME organism
-Gene transfer between organisms
oBacteriophage viruses can implant DNA into bacterial genomes
oProcaryotes can take up random DNA from environment
-Model Organisms (M.O.)
oRapid development
oTractability
oSmall adult (mature stage)
oReadily available
oGenes understandable
Created by Marina Wang ©
www.notesolution.com
BIO130 Final Exam Study Sheet
Pa g e | 2
E. Coli
Used to model prokaryotes and bacteria
Lives in your gut
Synechocystis
A phototrophic cyanobacterium
Yeast
M.O. for eukaryotes
Arabidopsis
M.O. for plants
The common Thale cress
Caenorhbditis elegans
Nematode worm
Has exactly 959 body cells
Drosophila melanogaster
Fruit fly
-Eukaryotes
oEntered endosymbiosis with a small energy generating bacteria (later the
mitochondria)
oSome cells then formed symbiosis with a chloroplast-like bacteria
These cells grew cell walls as they no longer had a need to move
DNA/RNA
-DNA: deoxyribosenucleic acid
-RNA: ribosenucleic acid (extra OH group at carbon 2)
-Formed from triphosphates
Created by Marina Wang ©
www.notesolution.com
BIO130 Final Exam Study Sheet
Pa g e | 3
oPhosphates linked by phosphoanhydride bonds
-U replaces T in RNA
-U, C, T= Pyrimidines (1 ring) (“CThe Pyramids)
-A, G= pyrines (2 rings)
-A=T or A=U less stable than GC
-DNA double strand has a major and minor grove (easily seen)
oMost reactions at major groove
-DNA nucleotides linked by phosphodiester bonds
oBetween 1 phosphate and 1 sugar
-Bases are hydrophobic and form internal core of double strand
-10 base pairs is 1 complete twist of DNA
Proteins
-Made of amino acids (AA)
-4 groups
oBasic (Lysine)
oAcidic (Glutamic acid)
oPolar (Valine)
oNon-polar (Serine)
-α helix & β sheet
oCreated by H-bonds in N-H and C=O of polypeptide backbone
oα helix is 1 chain of peptides with N-H of each peptide bond H-bonds with
C=O 4 peptide bonds away
oAmphipathic helixes hydrophobic parts hidden inside helix
oβ sheet can be parallel or antiparallel
Created by Marina Wang ©
www.notesolution.com

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Description
BIO130 Final Exam Study Sheet P a g e1 Part 1 Cells and Genomes - All cells: o Store data as DNA o Use RNA as intermediary form of data o Use proteins as catalysts o Translate RNA the same way (via ribosome) o Are enclosed in a plasma membrane - Homologous genes genes that were once the same gene (but was changed) o Orthologs Same gene diverged due to intragentic mutations into 2 different genes Usually results in speciation o Paralogs Duplication and divergence of genes in the SAME organism - Gene transfer between organisms o Bacteriophage viruses can implant DNA into bacterial genomes o Procaryotes can take up random DNA from environment - Model Organisms (M.O.) o Rapid development o Tractability o Small adult (mature stage) o Readily available o Genes understandable Created by Marina Wang www.notesolution.com BIO130 Final Exam Study Sheet P a g 2 E. Coli Used to model prokaryotes and bacteria Lives in your gut Synechocystis A phototrophic cyanobacterium Yeast M.O. for eukaryotes Arabidopsis M.O. for plants The common Thale cress Caenorhbditis elegans Nematode worm Has exactly 959 body cells Drosophila melanogaster Fruit fly - Eukaryotes o Entered endosymbiosis with a small energy generating bacteria (later the mitochondria) o Some cells then formed symbiosis with a chloroplast-like bacteria These cells grew cell walls as they no longer had a need to move DNARNA - DNA: deoxyribosenucleic acid - RNA: ribosenucleic acid (extra OH group at carbon 2) - Formed from triphosphates Created by Marina Wang www.notesolution.com
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