BIO130H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Okazaki Fragments, Dna Replication, Proteome

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If we assume the diversity that we’ve just been just been talking about is the result of different genes or
different patterns of gene expression would you different patterns of gene expression would you predict
that these new genes or expression patterns arose through modification of existing DNA arose through
modification of existing DNA sequences or by the synthesis of novel stretches of DNA in the organism?
DNA in the organism?
A. Modification of existing sequences
B. Synthesis of novel stretches of DNA
All of the following are arguments supporting the theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved fro
m prokaryotic endosymbionts EXCEPT:
A.Mitochondria and chloroplasts have double membranes.
B.Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own ribosomes.
C.Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own genomes that resemble those of prokaryotes.
D.Mitochondria and chloroplasts only need RNA to replicate themselves.
Which of the following descriptions BEST fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?
A) a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
B) a nitrogenous base and a pentose sugar
C) a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar
D) a pentose sugar and a purine or pyrimidine
The extremely high temperature tolerant bacteria is
found around deep sea volcanic vents all seem to have genomic DNA with an elevated GC:AT ratio when
compared with other bacteria. This is because...
A. GC ‐rich codons encode more thermo‐stable amino acids
B. The enzymatic synthesis of guanine and cytosine is favoured at higher temperatures
C. GC‐rich DNA is more stable at high temperatures
D. None of the above
Human cells do not contain any circular DNA molecules.
A. True
B. False
Which of the following conclusions or statements derived from our Elaborated Central Dogma is FALSE?
A. The transcriptome describes the total RNA content of the cell.
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B. The metabolome describes the set of small molecules present in a cell.
C.The primary direction of information flow in the cell is from translation to transcription, resulti
ng in the synthesis of the proteome.
D. The proteome describes the total protein content of the cell.
Which of the following are important forces that stabilize the double helix configuration of DNA?
A. H bonds between deoxyribose and phosphate molecules.
B. Van der Waal’s attractions.
C. Hydrophobic interactions between the DNA sugar phosphate phosphate backbone
and the aqueous environment environment.
D. Phosphodiester linkages between complementary base pairs.
Which one of the following pieces of double‐stranded DNA do you expect to have the highest melting
temperature?
A.) 5’‐AAATT‐3’ 3’TTTAA5’
D.) 5’‐GGG‐3’ 3’CCC5’
B ) 5’GGGCT3’ 3’‐CCCGA‐5’
E.) 5’‐AT‐3’ 3’‐TA‐5’
C.) 5’‐GG‐3’ 3’‐CC‐5’
Why are the properties of amino acid side chains important?
A. They can play a significant role in polypeptide folding
B. They help to stabilize α‐helix and helix and β‐sheet secondary sheet secondary structures
C. They can play a significant role in the function of the polypeptide
D. Answers A and C are correct
E. Answers A, B and C are correct
A eukaryotic organism’s complexity does not correlate with genome size. Which of the following is/are
possible reasons this statement is true?
A. More complex organisms have individual genes which are smaller in size than some other less
complex organisms
B. Variable portions of different species’ genomes encode information which is not expressed as
proteins
C. The numbers of transposable elements in the genome can be highly variable between species
D. Answers A, B and C are reasons why the statement is true.
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