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BIO220H1 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Trophy Hunting, Selective Sweep, Cougar


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO220H1
Professor
John Stinchcombe
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSG
BIO220H1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 2: Human Agricultural Coevolution
General Outline
What is coevolution?
How do humans coevolve with agricultural species?
What imprint does such coevolution leave in
genomes?
Coevolution
Reciprocal evolutionary responses in:
a pair of species, caused by selection imposed by each other
A coupled cycle
An evolutionary response changes selection on the opposite species
Co-evolution between species and sexes
Sexual Coevolution
Reciprocal evolutionary responses in:
the two sexes, caused by selection imposed by $each other
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Human Agricultural Coevolution
Reciprocal evolutionary responses in:
humans and their agricultural species, caused by selection imposed by each
other
How do humans coevolve with agricultural species?
Human-Agricultural Coevolution
Evolution by NS is a genetic and ecological process
Ecology produces selection
Genetics provides the material that is transmitted across generations
For humans, ‘ecology’ includes culture and the organisms we interact with
E.g. diet, how many children we have, our partner etc
What imprint does this have on the genome of each species?
Human infants depend on milk…adults?
Humans digest milk using the lactase enzyme
Humans get many useful milk-based products
Lactase enzyme function: help break down lactose
Lactase production normally declines in adulthood
Exception: people of north European origin
Decline in lactase yields the “lactose intolerant” suite of symptoms
Note that “WT” is to be lactose intolerant as an adult!
Unique culture and ecology of humans: cattle
Lactase Persistence in Human Populations
In many humans of European origin, lactase production persists through adulthood
Allows digestion of milk
Is this a chance effect, or due to selection?
Has this had any effect on the cows?
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