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BIO220H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Inbreeding Depression, Inbreeding Avoidance, Litmus

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John Stinchcombe
Study Guide

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January 16 lab 1 cycle start
Lecture 1
Use genetic principles to understand ecological and evolutional aspects
Adaptations of humans
Different DNAs:
sex chromosomes (X, Y), (Z all, W females)
o high/low recombination
crossing over frequency
o low -> all inherited together
o high-> inherited independently because can dissociate from
neighbor on chromosome
different parts of genome have different modes of transmission
uniparental vs biparental
all members of population vs half population
low recombination inherited as a unit
females live with natal group
males are semi-solitary
o join natal groups during mating
Hypothesis: do male elephants avoid inbreeding?
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o Yes, male elephants have evolved inbreeding avoidance because
inbreeding depression is severe
o Selection has not led to inbreeding avoidance because
inbreeding depression is weak/male reproductive success is so
highly variable
Hoeer, eperiets ith elephats are’t possile eause
gestation and lifespan is too long
o So, can use genetic markers
o Litmus test: do males behave in a way that suggests inbreeding
Observe behavior
Quantify mating behavior and assess hether the’re
directed away from kin
Maternity is certainty. Paternity requires genetics
o Possible results: Null) No difference, inbreeding preference,
inbreeding avoidance
o Result: elephants avoid their kin
Also holds for paternal relatives
Inbreeding depression is strong
o Observation: some wolf population in Canada migrate while others
o Do they show genetic differentiation at neutral markers? Are they at
different ecotypes?
o Is there gene flow between migratory and southern resident wolves?
o Measure with molecular tools
o Ecological forces?
o *Taiga= transition between boreal and tundra
o ARE some genetic differences between them, as can be seen
with microsatellite analysis and Fst (1=complete differentiation,
0=no differentiation)
mtDNA: 0.28
Y-chromosomes and autosomes: 0.03
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